This article is about religious belief. For trust in people or other things, see Trust (emotion). For other types of faith, see Faith (disambiguation). Faith (Armani), by Mino da Fiesole. Faith is confidence or trust in a particular system of religious belief, in which faith may equate to confidence based on some perceived degree of warrant. According to Rudolf Bultmann, faith must be a determined vital act of will, not a culling and extolling of "ancient proofs".
Etymology The English word faith is thought to date from 1200–1250, from the Middle English feith, via Anglo-French fed, Old French feid, feit from Latin fidem, accusative of fidēs (trust), akin to fīdere (to trust). Stages of faith development Main article: James W. Fowler § Stages of Faith James W. Fowler (1940–2015) proposes a series of stages of faith-development (or spiritual development) across the human life-span.
His stages relate closely to the work of Piaget, Erikson, and Kohlberg regarding aspects of psychological development in children and adults. Fowler defines faith as an activity of trusting, committing, and relating to the world based on a set of assumptions of how one is related to others and the world. Stages of faith Intuitive-Projective: a stage of confusion and of high impressionability through stories and rituals (pre-school period).
Mythic-Literal: a stage where provided information is accepted in order to conform with social norms (school-going period). Synthetic-Conventional: in this stage the faith acquired is concreted in the belief system with the forgoing of personification and replacement with authority in individuals or groups that represent one's beliefs (early-late adolescence). Individuative-Reflective: in this stage the individual critically analyzes adopted and accepted faith with existing systems of faith.
Disillusion or strengthening of faith happens in this stage. Based on needs, experiences and paradoxes (early adulthood). Conjunctive faith: in this stage people realize the limits of logic and, facing the paradoxes or transcendence of life, accept the "mystery of life" and often return to the sacred stories and symbols of the pre-acquired or re-adopted faith system. This stage is called negotiated settling in life (mid-life).
Universalizing faith: this is the "enlightenment" stage where the individual comes out of all the existing systems of faith and lives life with universal principles of compassion and love and in service to others for upliftment, without worries and doubt (middle-late adulthood (45–65 years old and plus). No hard-and-fast rule requires individuals pursuing faith to go through all six stages. There is a high probability for individuals to be content and fixed in a particular stage for a lifetime; stages from 2-5 are such stages.
Stage 6 is the summit of faith development. This state is often considered as "not fully" attainable. Epistemological validity There is a wide spectrum of opinion with respect to the epistemological validity of faith. Fideism Main article: Fideism Fideism is an epistemological theory which maintains that faith is independent of reason, or that reason and faith are hostile to each other and faith is superior at arriving at particular truths (see natural theology).
Fideism is not a synonym for religious belief, but describes a particular philosophical proposition in regard to the relationship between faith's appropriate jurisdiction at arriving at truths, contrasted against reason. It states that faith is needed to determine some philosophical and religious truths, and it questions the ability of reason to arrive at all truth. The word and concept had its origin in the mid- to late-19th century by way of Catholic thought, in a movement called Traditionalism.
The Roman Catholic Magisterium has, however, repeatedly condemned fideism. Religious views Bahá'í Faith See also: Role of faith in the Baha'i Faith In the Bahá'í Faith, faith is meant, first, conscious knowledge, and second, the practice of good deeds, ultimately the acceptance of the divine authority of the Manifestations of God. In the religion's view, faith and knowledge are both required for spiritual growth.
 Faith involves more than outward obedience to this authority, but also must be based on a deep personal understanding of religious teachings. Buddhism Main article: Faith in Buddhism Faith in Buddhism (Pali: saddhā, Sanskrit: śraddhā) refers to a serene commitment in the practice of the Buddha's teaching and trust in enlightened or highly developed beings, such as Buddhas or bodhisattvas (those aiming to become a Buddha).
 Buddhists usually recognize multiple objects of faith, but many are especially devoted to one particular object of faith, such as one particular Buddha. In early Buddhism, faith was focused on the Triple Gem, that is, Gautama Buddha, his teaching (the Dhamma), and the community of spiritually developed followers, or the monastic community seeking enlightenment (the Sangha). Although offerings to the monastic community were valued highest, early Buddhism did not morally condemn peaceful offerings to deities.
 A faithful devotee was called upāsaka or upāsika, for which no formal declaration was required. In early Buddhism, personal verification was valued highest in attaining the truth, and sacred scriptures, reason or faith in a teacher were considered less valuable sources of authority. As important as faith was, it was a mere initial step to the path to wisdom and enlightenment, and was obsolete or redefined at the final stage of that path.
 While faith in Buddhism does not imply "blind faith", Buddhist practice nevertheless requires a degree of trust, primarily in the spiritual attainment of Gautama Buddha. Faith in Buddhism centers on the understanding that the Buddha is an Awakened being, on his superior role as teacher, in the truth of his Dharma (spiritual teachings), and in his Sangha (community of spiritually developed followers).
Faith in Buddhism can be summarised as faith in the Three Jewels: the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. It is intended to lead to the goal of enlightenment, or bodhi, and Nirvana. Volitionally, faith implies a resolute and courageous act of will. It combines the steadfast resolution that one will do a thing with the self-confidence that one can do it. In the later stratum of Buddhist history, especially Mahāyāna Buddhism, faith was given a much more important role.
 The concept of the Buddha Nature was developed, as devotion to Buddhas and bodhisattvas residing in Pure Lands became commonplace. With the arising of the cult of the Lotus Sūtra, faith gained a central role in Buddhist practice, which was further amplified with the development of devotion to the Amitabha Buddha in Pure Land Buddhism. In the Japanese form of Pure Land Buddhism, under the teachers Hōnen and Shinran, only entrusting faith toward the Amitabha Buddha was believed to be a fruitful form of practice, as the practice of celibacy, morality and other Buddhist disciplines were dismissed as no longer effective in this day and age, or contradicting the virtue of faith.
 Faith was defined as a state similar to enlightenment, with a sense of self-negation and humility. Thus, the role of faith increased throughout Buddhist history. However, from the nineteenth century onward, Buddhist modernism in countries like Sri Lanka and Japan, and also in the West, has downplayed and criticized the role of faith in Buddhism. Faith in Buddhism still has a role in modern Asia or the West, but is understood and defined differently from traditional interpretations.
 Within the Dalit Buddhist Movement communities, taking refuge is defined not only as a religious, but also a political choice. Christianity Triumph of Faith over Idolatry by Jean-Baptiste Théodon (1646–1713) Main article: Faith in Christianity The word translated as "faith" in the New Testament is the Greek word πίστις which can also be translated "belief", "faithfulness", and "trust".
 There are various views in Christianity regarding the nature of faith. Some see faith as being persuaded or convinced that something is true. In this view, a person believes something when they are presented with adequate evidence that it is true. Theologian Greg Boyd argues to the contrary, that faith includes doubt. Then there are numerous views regarding the results of faith. Some believe that true faith results in good works, while others believe that while faith in Jesus brings eternal life, it does not necessarily result in good works.
 Regardless of which approach to faith a Christian takes, all agree that the Christian faith is aligned with the ideals and the example of the life of Jesus. The Christian sees the mystery of God and his grace and seeks to know and become obedient to God. To a Christian, faith is not static but causes one to learn more of God and to grow; Christian faith has its origin in God. In Christianity, faith causes change as it seeks a greater understanding of God.
Faith is not only fideism or simple obedience to a set of rules or statements. Before Christians have faith, they must understand in whom and in what they have faith. Without understanding, there cannot be true faith, and that understanding is built on the foundation of the community of believers, the scriptures and traditions and on the personal experiences of the believer. In English translations of the New Testament, the word "faith" generally corresponds to the Greek noun πίστις (pistis) or to the Greek verb πιστεύω (pisteuo), meaning "to trust, to have confidence, faithfulness, to be reliable, to assure".
 Christian apologetic views In contrast to noted atheist Richard Dawkins' view of faith as "blind trust, in the absence of evidence, even in the teeth of evidence",Alister McGrath quotes the Oxford Anglican theologian W. H. Griffith-Thomas (1861–1924), who states that faith is "not blind, but intelligent" and that it "commences with the conviction of the mind based on adequate evidence...
", which McGrath sees as "a good and reliable definition, synthesizing the core elements of the characteristic Christian understanding of faith". American biblical scholar Archibald Thomas Robertson stated that the Greek word pistis used for faith in the New Testament (over two hundred forty times), and rendered "assurance" in Acts 17:31 (KJV), is "an old verb meaning "to furnish", used regularly by Demosthenes for bringing forward evidence.
" Tom Price (Oxford Centre for Christian Apologetics) affirms that when the New Testament talks about faith positively it only uses words derived from the Greek root [pistis] which means "to be persuaded". British Christian apologist John Lennox argues that "faith conceived as belief that lacks warrant is very different from faith conceived as belief that has warrant". He states that "the use of the adjective 'blind' to describe 'faith' indicates that faith is not necessarily, or always, or indeed normally, blind".
"The validity, or warrant, of faith or belief depends on the strength of the evidence on which the belief is based." "We all know how to distinguish between blind faith and evidence-based faith. We are well aware that faith is only justified if there is evidence to back it up." "Evidence-based faith is the normal concept on which we base our everyday lives." Peter S Williams holds that "the classic Christian tradition has always valued rationality, and does not hold that faith involves the complete abandonment of reason while believing in the teeth of evidence.
" Quoting Moreland, faith is defined as "a trust in and commitment to what we have reason to believe is true." Regarding doubting Thomas in John 20:24-31, Williams points out that "Thomas wasn't asked to believe without evidence". He was asked to believe on the basis of the other disciples' testimony. Thomas initially lacked the first-hand experience of the evidence that had convinced them... Moreover, the reason John gives for recounting these events is that what he saw is evidence.
.. Jesus did many other miraculous signs in the presence of his disciples...But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the son of God, and that believing ye might have life in his name. John 20:30,31. Concerning doubting Thomas, Michael R. Allen wrote, "Thomas's definition of faith implies adherence to conceptual propositions for the sake of personal knowledge, knowledge of and about a person qua person".
 Kenneth Boa and Robert M. Bowman Jr. describe a classic understanding of faith that is referred toas evidentialism, and which is part of a larger epistemological tradition called classical foundationalism, which is accompanied by deontologism, which holds that humans have an obligation to regulate their beliefs in accordance with evidentialist structures. They show how this can go too far, and Alvin Plantinga deals with it.
While Plantinga upholds that faith may be the result of evidence testifying to the reliability of the source (of the truth claims), yet he sees having faith as being the result of hearing the truth of the gospel with the internal persuasion by the Holy Spirit moving and enabling him to believe. "Christian belief is produced in the believer by the internal instigation of the Holy Spirit, endorsing the teachings of Scripture, which is itself divinely inspired by the Holy Spirit.
The result of the work of the Holy Spirit is faith." Hinduism Main article: Hinduism Ahimsa, also referred to as non-violence, is the fundamental tenet of Hinduism which advocates harmonious and peaceful co-existence and evolutionary growth in grace and wisdom for all humankind unconditionally. In Hinduism, most of the Vedic prayers begins with the chants of Om. Om is the Sanskrit symbol that amazingly resonates the peacefulness ensconced within one's higher self.
Om is considered to have a profound effect on the body and mind of the one who chants and also creates a calmness, serenity, healing, strength of its own to prevail within and also in the surrounding environment. Islam Main article: Iman (concept) In Islam, a believer's faith in the metaphysical aspects of Islam is called "Iman" (Arabic: الإيمان), which is complete submission to the will of God, not unquestionable or blind belief.
 A man must build his faith on well-grounded convictions beyond any reasonable doubt and above uncertainty. According to the Quran, Iman must be accompanied by righteous deeds and the two together are necessary for entry into Paradise. In the Hadith of Gabriel, Iman in addition to Islam and Ihsan form the three dimensions of the Islamic religion. Prophet Muhammad referred to the six articles of faith in the Hadith of Gabriel: "Iman is that you believe in God and His Angels and His Books and His Messengers and the Hereafter and the good and evil fate [ordained by your God].
" The first five are mentioned together in the Qur'an  The Quran states that faith can grow with remembrance of God. The Qur'an also states that nothing in this world should be dearer to a true believer than faith. Judaism Main article: Jewish principles of faith Faith itself is not a religious concept in Judaism. The only one time faith in God is mentioned in the 24 books of the Jewish Bible, is in verse 10 of the Book of Isaiah, Chapter 43.
In this verse, the commandment to know God is followed by the commandments to believe and to understand, thus denoting descending importance. However, Judaism does recognize the positive value of Emunah (generally translated as faith, trust in God) and the negative status of the Apikorus (heretic), but faith is not as stressed or as central as it is in other religions, especially compared with Christianity and Islam.
It could be a necessary means for being a practicing religious Jew, but the emphasis is placed on true knowledge, true prophecy and practice rather than on faith itself. Very rarely does it relate to any teaching that must be believed. Judaism does not require one to explicitly identify God (a key tenet of Christian faith, which is called Avodah Zarah in Judaism, a minor form of idol worship, a big sin and strictly forbidden to Jews).
Rather, in Judaism, one is to honour a (personal) idea of God, supported by the many principles quoted in the Talmud to define Judaism, mostly by what it is not. Thus there is no established formulation of Jewish principles of faith which are mandatory for all (observant) Jews. In the Jewish scriptures trust in God – Emunah – refers to how God acts toward his people and how they are to respond to him; it is rooted in the everlasting covenant established in the Torah, notably Deuteronomy 7:9: Know, therefore, that the Lord, your God He is God, the faithful God, Who keeps the covenant and loving kindness with those who love Him and keep His commandments to a thousand generations.
 — Tanakh, Deuteronomy 7:9 The specific tenets that compose required belief and their application to the times have been disputed throughout Jewish history. Today many, but not all, Orthodox Jews have accepted Maimonides' Thirteen Principles of Belief. A traditional example of Emunah as seen in the Jewish annals is found in the person of Abraham. On a number of occasions, Abraham both accepts statements from God that seem impossible and offers obedient actions in response to direction from God to do things that seem implausible (see Genesis 12-15).
"The Talmud describes how a thief also believes in G‑d: On the brink of his forced entry, as he is about to risk his life—and the life of his victim—he cries out with all sincerity, 'G‑d help me!' The thief has faith that there is a G‑d who hears his cries, yet it escapes him that this G‑d may be able to provide for him without requiring that he abrogate G‑d’s will by stealing from others.
For emunah to affect him in this way he needs study and contemplation." Sikhism Main articles: Sikhism and Five Ks Faith itself is not a religious concept in Sikhism. However, the five Sikh symbols, known as Kakaars or Five Ks (in Punjabi known as pañj kakkē or pañj kakār), are sometimes referred to as the Five articles of Faith. The articles include kēs (uncut hair), kaṅghā (small wooden comb), kaṛā (circular steel or iron bracelet), kirpān (sword/dagger), and kacchera (special undergarment).
Baptised Sikhs are bound to wear those five articles of faith, at all times, to save them from bad company and keep them close to God. Support Religious epistemologists have formulated and defended reasons for the rationality of accepting belief in God without the support of an argument. Some religious epistemologists hold that belief in God is more analogous to belief in a person than belief in a scientific hypothesis.
Human relations demand trust and commitment. If belief in God is more like belief in other persons, then the trust that is appropriate to persons will be appropriate to God. American psychologist and philosopher William James offers a similar argument in his lecture The Will to Believe.Foundationalism is a view about the structure of justification or knowledge. Foundationalism holds that all knowledge and justified belief are ultimately based upon what are called properly basic beliefs.
This position is intended to resolve the infinite regress problem in epistemology. According to foundationalism, a belief is epistemically justified only if it is justified by properly basic beliefs. One of the significant developments in foundationalism is the rise of reformed epistemology. Reformed epistemology is a view about the epistemology of religious belief, which holds that belief in God can be properly basic.
Analytic philosophers Alvin Plantinga and Nicholas Wolterstorff develop this view. Plantinga holds that an individual may rationally believe in God even though the individual does not possess sufficient evidence to convince an agnostic. One difference between reformed epistemology and fideism is that the former requires defence against known objections, whereas the latter might dismiss such objections as irrelevant.
 Plantinga has developed reformed epistemology in Warranted Christian Belief as a form of externalism that holds that the justification conferring factors for a belief may include external factors. Some theistic philosophers have defended theism by granting evidentialism but supporting theism through deductive arguments whose premises are considered justifiable. Some of these arguments are probabilistic, either in the sense of having weight but being inconclusive, or in the sense of having a mathematical probability assigned to them.
 Notable in this regard are the cumulative arguments presented by British philosopher Basil Mitchell and analytic philosopher Richard Swinburne, whose arguments are based on Bayesian probability. In a notable exposition of his arguments, Swinburne appeals to an inference for the best explanation. Professor of Mathematics and philosopher of science at University of Oxford John Lennox has stated, "Faith is not a leap in the dark; it’s the exact opposite.
It’s a commitment based on evidence… It is irrational to reduce all faith to blind faith and then subject it to ridicule. That provides a very anti-intellectual and convenient way of avoiding intelligent discussion.” He criticises Richard Dawkins as a famous proponent of asserting that faith equates to holding a belief without evidence, thus that it is possible to hold belief without evidence, for failing to provide evidence for this assertion.
 Criticism Bertrand Russell wrote: Christians hold that their faith does good, but other faiths do harm. At any rate, they hold this about the communist faith. What I wish to maintain is that all faiths do harm. We may define “faith” as a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence. Where there is evidence, no one speaks of “faith.” We do not speak of faith that two and two are four or that the earth is round.
We only speak of faith when we wish to substitute emotion for evidence. The substitution of emotion for evidence is apt to lead to strife, since different groups substitute different emotions. Christians have faith in the Resurrection; communists have faith in Marx’s Theory of Value. Neither faith can be defended rationally, and each therefore is defended by propaganda and, if necessary, by war.
— Will Religious Faith Cure Our Troubles? Evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins criticizes all faith by generalizing from specific faith in propositions that conflict directly with scientific evidence. He describes faith as belief without evidence; a process of active non-thinking. He states that it is a practice that only degrades our understanding of the natural world by allowing anyone to make a claim about nature that is based solely on their personal thoughts, and possibly distorted perceptions, that does not require testing against nature, has no ability to make reliable and consistent predictions, and is not subject to peer review.
 See also Shinto faith. Apostasy Blue skies research Delusion Dogma Faith and rationality Faith, Hope, and Charity Kübler-Ross model Incorrigibility Lectures on Faith Life stance Major world religions Numinous Pascal's Wager Rationalism Religious conversion Saint Faith Simple church Spectrum of theistic probability There are no atheists in foxholes Truthiness World view References ^ a b "Faith – Define Faith".
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G. Plaut) ^ The 13 Principles and the Resurrection of the Dead Archived 2006-02-08 at the Wayback Machine. from The Wolf Shall Lie With the Lamb, Rabbi Shmuel Boteach (Oxford University) ^ For a wide history of this dispute see: Shapiro, Marc: The Limits of Orthodox Theology: Maimonides' Thirteen Principles Reappraised (Littman Library of Jewish Civilization (Series).) ^ "Sikhism: Five Articles of Faith".
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London: Macmillan. ^ Swinburne, Richard. The Existence of God. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ^ Forrest, Peter. God without the Supernatural. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ^ Swinburne, Richard. Is there a God?. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ^ Lennox, John (2009). God's Undertaker: Has Science Buried God?. Lion UK. ^ Russell, Bertrand. "Will Religious Faith Cure Our Troubles?". Human Society in Ethics and Politics.
Ch 7. Pt 2. Retrieved 16 August 2009. ^ Dawkins, Richard (2006). The God Delusion. Bantam Books. ^ Dawkins, Richard (January–February 1997). "Is Science a Religion?". American Humanist Association. Archived from the original on 30 October 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2008. Sources Green, Ronald S. (2013), "East Asian Buddhism" (PDF), in Emmanuel, Steven M., A companion to Buddhist philosophy, Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 978-0-470-65877-2 Harvey, Peter (2013), An introduction to Buddhism: teachings, history and practices (PDF) (2nd ed.
), New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-85942-4 Jayatilleke, K.N. (1963), Early Buddhist theory of knowledge (PDF), George Allen & Unwin, ISBN 1-134-54287-9 Lamotte, Etienne (1988), Histoire du Bouddhisme Indien, des origines à l'ère Śaka [History of Indian Buddhism: from the origins to the Saka era] (PDF) (in French), translated by Webb-Boin, Sara, Louvain-la-Neuve: Université catholique de Louvain, Institut orientaliste, ISBN 906831100X Further reading Sam Harris, The End of Faith: Religion, Terror, and the Future of Reason, W.
W. Norton (2004), hardcover, 336 pages, ISBN 0-393-03515-8 Stephen Palmquist, "Faith as Kant's Key to the Justification of Transcendental Reflection", The Heythrop Journal 25:4 (October 1984), pp. 442–455. Reprinted as Chapter V in Stephen Palmquist, Kant's System of Perspectives (Lanham: University Press of America, 1993). D. Mark Parks, "Faith/Faithfulness" Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary.
Eds. Chad Brand, Charles Draper, Archie England. Nashville: Holman Publishers, 2003. On Faith and Reason by Swami Tripurari Baba, Meher: Discourses, San Francisco: Sufism Reoriented, 1967. Classic reflections on the nature of faith Martin Buber, I and Thou Paul Tillich, The Dynamics of Faith The Reformation view of faith John Calvin, The Institutes of the Christian Religion, 1536 R.C. Sproul, Faith Alone, Baker Books, 1 February 1999, ISBN 9780801058493 External links Look up πίστις in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Look up faith in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Faith Wikimedia Commons has media related to Faith. John Bishop (Jul 10, 2017). "Faith". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Peter Forrest (Jul 10, 2017). "Epistemology of the religion". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Faith in Judaism chabad.org Pew Research Center Reports on Religion Faith News & Religion | Times Online Articles and comment about faith issues and religion from The Times Links to related articles v t e Christian virtue ethics Great Commandment; "All the Law and the Prophets hang on these two commandments.
" – Matthew 22:35-40 Four Cardinal virtues Prudence (Prudentia) Justice (Iustitia) Fortitude (Fortitudo) Temperance (Temperantia) Sources: Plato Republic, Book IV Cicero Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Thomas Aquinas Three Theological virtues Faith (Fides) Hope (Spes) Love (Caritas) Sources: Paul the Apostle 1 Corinthians 13 Seven deadly sins Lust (Luxuria) Gluttony (Gula) Greed (Avaritia) Sloth (Acedia) Wrath (Ira) Envy (Invidia) Pride (Superbia) Source: Prudentius, Psychomachia People: Evagrius Ponticus John Cassian Pope Gregory I Dante Alighieri Peter Binsfeld Related concepts Ten Commandments Eschatology Sin Original sin Old Covenant Hamartiology Christian ethics Christian philosophy Christianity portal Philosophy portal v t e Christian soteriology Absolution Adoption Assurance Atonement Baptism Calling Conversion Divinization Election Eternal life Faith Forgiveness Glorification Grace Irresistible Imputation Justification Means of grace Monergism Mortification Ordo salutis Perseverance Predestination Recapitulation Reconciliation Redemption Regeneration Repentance Resurrection Salvation Sanctification Synergism Theosis Union with Christ Related theology Christology The Trinity Hamartiology v t e Philosophy of religion Concepts in religion Afterlife Euthyphro dilemma Faith Intelligent design Miracle Problem of evil Religious belief Soul Spirit Theodicy Theological veto Conceptions of God Aristotelian view Brahman Demiurge Divine simplicity Egoism Holy Spirit Misotheism Pandeism Personal god Process theology Supreme Being Unmoved mover God in Abrahamic religions Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Islam Jainism Judaism Mormonism Sikhism Bahá'í Faith Wicca Existence of God For Beauty Christological Consciousness Cosmological Kalam Contingency Degree Desire Experience Fine-tuning of the Universe Love Miracles Morality Necessary existent Ontological Pascal's Wager Proper basis Reason Teleological Natural law Watchmaker analogy Transcendental Against 747 gambit Atheist's Wager Evil Free will Hell Inconsistent revelations Nonbelief Noncognitivism Occam's razor Omnipotence Poor design Russell's teapot Theology Acosmism Agnosticism Animism Antireligion Atheism Creationism Dharmism Deism Demonology Divine command theory Dualism Esotericism Exclusivism Existentialism Christian Agnostic Atheistic Feminist theology Thealogy Womanist theology Fideism Fundamentalism Gnosticism Henotheism Humanism Religious Secular Christian Inclusivism Theories about religions Monism Monotheism Mysticism Naturalism Metaphysical Religious Humanistic New Age Nondualism Nontheism Pandeism Panentheism Pantheism Perennialism Polytheism Possibilianism Process theology Religious skepticism Spiritualism Shamanism Taoic Theism Transcendentalism more.
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K. Clifford Friedrich Nietzsche Harald Høffding William James Vladimir Solovyov Ernst Troeltsch Rudolf Otto Lev Shestov Sergei Bulgakov Pavel Florensky Ernst Cassirer Joseph Maréchal 1920 postwar George Santayana Bertrand Russell Martin Buber René Guénon Paul Tillich Karl Barth Emil Brunner Rudolf Bultmann Gabriel Marcel Reinhold Niebuhr Charles Hartshorne Mircea Eliade J L Mackie Walter Kaufmann Martin Lings Peter Geach George I Mavrodes William Alston Antony Flew 1970 1990 2010 William L Rowe Dewi Z Phillips Alvin Plantinga Anthony Kenny Nicholas Wolterstorff Richard Swinburne Robert Merrihew Adams Peter van Inwagen Daniel Dennett Loyal Rue Jean-Luc Marion William Lane Craig Ali Akbar Rashad Alexander Pruss Related topics Criticism of religion Ethics in religion Exegesis History of religions Religion Religious language Religious philosophy Relationship between religion and science Political science of religion Faith and rationality more.
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wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Faith&oldid=826004158"See Also: Rambo First Blood Knife
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"Corinthians" redirects here. For other uses, see Corinthian (disambiguation). The First Epistle to the Corinthians (Ancient Greek: Α΄ ᾽Επιστολὴ πρὸς Κορινθίους), usually referred to simply as First Corinthians and often written 1 Corinthians, is one of the Pauline epistles of the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The epistle says that Paul the Apostle and "Sosthenes our brother" wrote it to "the church of God which is at Corinth" 1Cor.
1:1–2 although the scholarly consensus holds that Sosthenes was the amanuensis who wrote down the text of the letter at Paul's direction. Called "a masterpiece of pastoral theology", it addresses various issues that had arisen in the Christian community at Corinth. This epistle contains some well-known phrases, including: "all things to all men" (9:22), "through a glass, darkly" (13:12), and "When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child" (13:11).
Authorship Further information: Authorship of the Pauline epistles There is consensus among historians and Christian theologians that Paul is the author of the First Epistle to the Corinthians (c. AD 53–54). The letter is quoted or mentioned by the earliest of sources, and is included in every ancient canon, including that of Marcion. The personal and even embarrassing texts about immorality in the church increase consensus.
 However, two passages may have been inserted at a later stage. The first passage is 1 Corinthians 11:2–16, dealing with praying and prophesying with head covering. The second passage is 1 Corinthians 14:34–35, whose authenticity has been hotly debated. Part of the reason for doubt is that in some manuscripts, the verses come at the end of the chapter instead of at its present location. Furthermore, Paul is here appealing to the law which is uncharacteristic of him.
Lastly, the verses come into conflict with 11:5 where women are described as praying and prophesying. As well, 10:1-22 is sometimes regarded as another letter fragment, interpolation, or inserted midrash because, among other things, this section virtually seems to equate the consumption of idol meat with idolatry, but Paul seems more lenient regarding its consumption in 8:1-13 and 10:23-11:1. Such views are rejected by other scholars who give formidable arguments for the unity of 8:1-11:1.
 Composition About the year AD 50, towards the end of his second missionary journey, Paul founded the church in Corinth, before moving on to Ephesus, a city on the west coast of today's Turkey, about 180 miles by sea from Corinth. From there he traveled to Caesarea, and Antioch. Paul returned to Ephesus on his third missionary journey and spent approximately three years there (Acts 19:8, 19:10, 20:31).
It was while staying in Ephesus that he received disconcerting news of the community in Corinth regarding jealousies, rivalry, and immoral behavior. It also appears that based on a letter the Corinthians sent Paul (e.g. 7:1), the congregation was requesting clarification on a number of matters, such as marriage and the consumption of meat previously offered to idols. By comparing Acts of the Apostles 18:1–17 and mentions of Ephesus in the Corinthian correspondence, scholars suggest that the letter was written during Paul's stay in Ephesus, which is usually dated as being in the range of AD 53–57.
 Anthony C. Thiselton suggests that it is possible that I Corinthians was written during Paul's first (brief) stay in Ephesus, at the end of his Second Journey, usually dated to early AD 54. However, it is more likely that it was written during his extended stay in Ephesus, where he refers to sending Timothy to them (Acts 19:22, I Cor. 4:17). Structure 1 Cor. 1:1–21 from the 8th century in Codex Amiatinus 1 Cor.
1:1–2a from the 14th century Minuscule 223 The epistle may be divided into seven parts: Salutation (1:1–3) Paul addresses the issue regarding challenges to his apostleship and defends the issue by claiming that it was given to him through a revelation from Christ. The salutation (the first section of the letter) reinforces the legitimacy of Paul's apostolic claim. Thanksgiving (1:4–9) The thanksgiving part of the letter is typical of Hellenistic letter writing.
In a thanksgiving recitation the writer thanks God for health, a safe journey, deliverance from danger, or good fortune. In this letter, the thanksgiving "introduces charismata and gnosis, topics to which Paul will return and that he will discuss at greater length later in the letter". Division in Corinth (1:10–4:21) Facts of division Causes of division Cure for division Immorality in Corinth (5:1–6:20) Discipline an immoral Brother Resolving personal disputes Sexual purity Difficulties in Corinth (7:1–14:40) Marriage Christian liberty Worship Doctrine of Resurrection (15:1–58) Closing (16:1–24) Paul's closing remarks in his letters usually contain his intentions and efforts to improve the community.
He would first conclude with his paraenesis and wish them peace by including a prayer request, greet them with his name and his friends with a holy kiss, and offer final grace and benediction: Now concerning the contribution for the saints: as I directed the churches of Galatia… Let all your things be done with charity. Greet one another with a holy kiss... I, Paul, write this greeting with my own hand.
If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be Anathema Maranatha. The grace of the Lord Jesus be with you. My love be with you all in Christ Jesus. Amen. — (1 Cor. 16:1–24). Content The foundation of Christ 1 Corinthians 3:11; posted at the Menno-Hof Amish & Mennonite Museum in Shipshewana, Indiana "In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.
" 1 Corinthians 15:52. Illumination from Beatus de Facundus, 1047. Some time before 2 Corinthians was written, Paul paid them a second visit (2 Cor. 12: 14; 2 Cor. 13: 1) to check some rising disorder (2 Cor. 2: 1; 2 Cor. 13: 2), and wrote them a letter, now lost (1 Cor. 5: 9). They had also been visited by Apollos (Acts 18: 27), perhaps by Peter (1 Cor. 1: 12), and by some Jewish Christians who brought with them letters of commendation from Jerusalem (1 Cor.
1: 12; 2 Cor. 3: 1; 2 Cor. 5: 16; 2 Cor. 11: 23). Paul wrote this letter to correct what he saw as erroneous views in the Corinthian church. Several sources informed Paul of conflicts within the church at Corinth: Apollos (Acts 19:1), a letter from the Corinthians, the "household of Chloe", and finally Stephanas and his two friends who had visited Paul (1:11; 16:17). Paul then wrote this letter to the Corinthians, urging uniformity of belief ("that ye all speak the same thing and that there be no divisions among you", 1:10) and expounding Christian doctrine.
Titus and a brother whose name is not given were probably the bearers of the letter to the church at Corinth (2 Corinthians 2:13; 8:6, 16–18). In general, divisions within the church at Corinth seem to be a problem, and Paul makes it a point to mention these conflicts in the beginning. Specifically, pagan roots still hold sway within their community. Paul wants to bring them back to what he sees as correct doctrine, stating that God has given him the opportunity to be a "skilled master builder" to lay the foundation and let others build upon it (1 Cor 3:10).
Later, Paul wrote about immorality in Corinth by discussing an immoral brother, how to resolve personal disputes, and sexual purity. Regarding marriage, Paul states that it is better for Christians to remain unmarried, but that if they lacked self-control, it is better to marry than "burn" (πυροῦσθαι) which Christians have traditionally thought meant to burn with sinful desires. The Epistle may include marriage as an apostolic practice in 1 Corinthians 9:5, "Do we not have the right to be accompanied by a believing wife, as do the other apostles and the brothers of the Lord and Cephas (Peter)?" (In the last case, the letter concurs with Matthew 8:14, which mentions Peter having a mother-in-law and thus, by interpolation, a wife.
) However, the Greek word for "wife" is the same word for "woman". The Early Church Fathers including Tertullian, Jerome, and Augustine state the Greek word is ambiguous and the women in 1 Corinthians 9:5 were women ministering to the Apostles as women ministered to Christ (cf Matthew 27:55, Luke 8:1–3), and were not wives, and assert they left their "offices of marriage" to follow Christ and to preach.
 Paul also argues unmarried people must please God, just as married people must please their spouses. The letter is also notable for mentioning the role of women in churches, that for instance they must remain silent (1 Cor. 14:34–35), and yet they have a role of prophecy and apparently speaking tongues in churches (11:2–16). If 14:34-35 is not an interpolation, certain scholars resolve the tension between these texts by positing that wives were either contesting their husband's inspired speeches at church, or the wives/women were chatting and asking questions in a disorderly manner when others were giving inspired utterances.
Their silence was unique to the particular situation in the Corinthian gatherings at that time, and on this reading, Paul did not intend his words to be universalized for all women of all churches of all eras. After discussing his views on worshipping idols, Paul finally ends with his views on resurrection. He states that Christ died for our sins, and was buried, and rose on the third day according to the scriptures (1 Cor.
15:3). Paul then asks: "Now if Christ is preached as raised from the dead, how can some of you say that there is no resurrection of the dead?" (1 Cor. 15:12) and addresses the question of resurrection. Throughout the letter, Paul presents issues that are troubling the community in Corinth and offers ways to fix them. Paul states that this letter is to "admonish" them as beloved children. They are expected to become imitators of Jesus and follow the ways in Christ as he, Paul, teaches in all his churches (1 Cor.
4:14–16). See also 1 Corinthians 11 – on church order 1 Corinthians 13 – the tongues of men and angels verse 1 Corinthians 15 – on the Resurrection Christian headcovering Pauline privilege Second Epistle to the Corinthians Textual variants in the First Epistle to the Corinthians Third Epistle to the Corinthians References ^ Meyer's NT Commentary on 1 Corinthians, accessed 16 March 2017 ^ "Paul’s First Letter to the Corinthians", Yale Divinity School ^ Robert Wall, New Interpreter's Bible Vol.
X (Abingdon Press, 2002), p. 373 ^ "Uncials – Ancient Biblical Manuscripts Online – LibGuides at Baptist Missionary Association Theological Seminary". ^ Gench, Frances Taylor (2015-05-18). Encountering God in Tyrannical Texts: Reflections on Paul, Women, and the Authority of Scripture. Presbyterian Publishing Corp. p. 97. ISBN 9780664259525. ^ John Muddiman, John Barton, ed. (2001). The Oxford Bible Commentary.
New York: Oxford University Press Inc. p. 1125. ISBN 978-0-19-875500-5. It is full of awkward argumentation, so awkward that a few scholars even consider it a later addition to the letter by another hand. ^ John Muddiman, John Barton, ed. (2001). The Oxford Bible Commentary. New York: Oxford University Press Inc. p. 1130. ISBN 978-0-19-875500-5. ^ Walter Schmithals, Gnosticism in Corinth (Nashville: Abingdon, 1971), 14, 92-95; Lamar Cope, "First Corinthians 8-10: Continuity or Contradiction?" Anglican Theological Review: Supplementary Series II.
Christ and His Communities (Mar. 1990) 114-23. ^ Joop F. M. Smit, About the Idol Offerings (Leuven: Peeters, 2000); B. J. Oropeza, "Laying to Rest the Midrash," Biblica 79 (1998) 57-68. ^ a b "1 Corinthians - Introduction", USCCB ^ Corinthians, First Epistle to the, "The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia", Ed. James Orr, 1915. ^ Pauline Chronology: His Life and Missionary Work, from Catholic Resources by Felix Just, S.
J. ^ Anthony C. Thiselton, The First Epistle to the Corinthians (Eerdmans, 2000), 31. ^ Outline from NET Bible.org ^ Roetzel 1999. ^ Tertullian, On Monogamy "For have we not the power of eating and drinking?" he does not demonstrate that "wives" were led about by the apostles, whom even such as have not still have the power of eating and drinking; but simply "women", who used to minister to them in the stone way (as they did) when accompanying the Lord.
" ^ Jerome, Against Jovinianus, Book I "In accordance with this rule Peter and the other Apostles (I must give Jovinianus something now and then out of my abundance) had indeed wives, but those which they had taken before they knew the Gospel. But once they were received into the Apostolate, they forsook the offices of marriage." ^ B. J. Oropeza, 1 Corinthians. New Covenant Commentary (Eugene: Cascade, 2017), 187-94; Philip B.
Payne, Man and Woman: One in Christ (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2009); Ben Witherington, Women in the Earliest Churches (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); Further reading Blenkinsopp, Joseph, The Corinthian Mirror: a Study of Contemporary Themes in a Pauline Epistle [i.e. in First Corinthians], Sheed and Ward, London, 1964. Conzelmann, Hans Der erste Brief an die Korinther, KEK V, Göttingen 1969.
Robertson, A. and A. Plumber, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the First Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians (Edinburgh 1961). Thiselton, Anthony C. The First Epistle to the Corinthians: a commentary on the Greek text NIGTC, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids 2000. Yung Suk Kim. Christ's Body in Corinth: The Politics of a Metaphor (Fortress, 2008). External links Wikisource has original text related to this article: 1 Corinthians Wikiquote has quotations related to: First Epistle to the Corinthians A Brief Introduction to 1 Corinthians International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: 1 Corinthians "Corinthians, Epistles to the".
The American Cyclopædia. 1879. "Corinthians, First Epistle to the". Easton's Bible Dictionary. 1897. "Corinthians, Epistles to the". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 150–154. 1 Corinthians public domain audiobook at LibriVox Various versions First Epistle to the Corinthians Pauline Epistle Preceded byRomans New TestamentBooks of the Bible Succeeded bySecond Corinthians v t e First Epistle to the Corinthians Bible 1 Corinthians 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Places Achaea Corinth Ephesus Galatia Jerusalem Macedonia Persons Apollos Aquila Barnabas Chloe Crispus Fortunatus Gaius Jesus Christ Messiah Paul Priscilla Timothy Sources Greek Text Latin Vulgate Wycliffe Version King James Version American Standard Version World English Version v t e Books of the Bible Principal divisions Hebrew Bible/Old Testament Protocanon Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Joshua Judges Ruth 1–2 Samuel 1–2 Kings 1–2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations Ezekiel Daniel Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi Deuterocanonand Apocrypha Catholic Orthodox Tobit Judith Additions to Esther 1 Maccabees 2 Maccabees Wisdom Sirach Baruch / Letter of Jeremiah Additions to Daniel Susanna Song of the Three Children Bel and the Dragon) Orthodox only 1 Esdras 2 Esdras Prayer of Manasseh Psalm 151 3 Maccabees 4 Maccabees Odes Tewahedo Orthodox Enoch Jubilees 1, 2, and 3 Meqabyan Paralipomena of Baruch Broader canon Syriac Letter of Baruch 2 Baruch Psalms 152–155 New Testament Matthew Mark Luke John Acts Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians Galatians Ephesians Philippians Colossians 1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy 2 Timothy Titus Philemon Hebrews James 1 Peter 2 Peter 1 John 2 John 3 John Jude Revelation Subdivisions Chapters and verses Pentateuch Wisdom Major prophets / Minor prophets Gospels Synoptic Epistles Pauline Johannine Pastoral Catholic Apocalyptic literature Development Old Testament canon New Testament canon Antilegomena Jewish canon Christian canon Manuscripts Dead Sea Scrolls Samaritan Pentateuch Septuagint Targum Diatessaron Muratorian fragment Peshitta Vetus Latina Masoretic Text New Testament manuscript categories New Testament papyri New Testament uncials See also Biblical canon Luther's canon Authorship English Bible translations Other books referenced in the Bible Pseudepigrapha list New Testament apocrypha Studies Synod of Hippo Textual criticism Category Portal WikiProject Book Authority control BNF: cb11936702j (data) Retrieved from "https://en.