The timeline of religion is a chronological catalogue of important and noteworthy religious events in pre-historic and modern times. This article reaches into pre-historic times, as the bulk of the human religious experience pre-dates written history. Written history (the age of formal writing) is only c.5000 years old. A lack of written records results in most of the knowledge of pre-historic religion being derived from archaeological records and other indirect sources, and from suppositions.
Much pre-historic religion is subject to continued debate. Prehistory 50th to 11th millennium BCE 40,000 BCE The remains of one of the earliest anatomically modern humans to be cremated was buried near Lake Mungo. 38,000 BCE The AurignacianLöwenmensch figurine, the oldest known zoomorphic (animal-shaped) sculpture in the world and one of the oldest known sculptures in general, was made.
The sculpture has also been interpreted as anthropomorphic, giving human characteristics to an animal, although it may have represented a deity. All convincing evidence for Neanderthal burials ceased. Roughly coinciding with the time period of the Homo sapiens' introduction to Europe and decline of the Neanderthals, individual skulls and/or long bones began appearing, heavily stained with red ochre and separately buried.
This practice may be the origin of sacred relics. The oldest discovered "Venus figurines" appeared in graves. Some were deliberately broken or repeatedly stabbed, possibly representing the murders of the men with whom they were buried, or owing to some other unknown social dynamic. 25,000–21,000 BCE Clear examples of burials are present in Iberia, Wales, and eastern Europe. These, too, incorporate the heavy use of red ochre.
Additionally, various objects were included in the graves (e.g. periwinkle shells, weighted clothing, dolls, possible drumsticks, mammoth ivory beads, fox teeth pendants, panoply of ivory artifacts, "baton" antlers, flint blades etc.). 13,000–8,000 BCE Noticeable burial activity resumed. Prior mortuary activity had either taken a less obvious form or contemporaries retained some of their burial knowledge in the absence of such activity.
Dozens of men, women, and children were being buried in the same caves which were used for burials 10,000 years beforehand. All these graves are delineated by the cave walls and large limestone blocks. The burials share a number of characteristics (such as use of ochre, and shell and mammoth ivory jewellery) that go back thousands of years. Some burials were double, comprising an adult male with a juvenile male buried by his side.
They were now beginning to take on the form of modern cemeteries. Old burials were commonly re-dug and moved to make way for new ones, with the older bones often being gathered and cached together. Large stones may have acted as grave markers. Pairs of ochred antlers were sometimes mounted on poles within the cave; this is compared to the modern practice of leaving flowers at a grave. 10th Millennium to 1st century BCE 9130–7370 BCE This was the apparent period of use of Göbekli Tepe, one of the oldest human-made sites of worship yet discovered; evidence of similar usage has also been found in another nearby site, Nevalı Çori.
 This period is also noted as the beginning of the First Sangam period in South India. 7500–5700 BCE The settlements of Catalhoyuk developed as a likely spiritual centre of Anatolia. Possibly practising worship in communal shrines, its inhabitants left behind numerous clay figurines and impressions of phallic, feminine and hunting scenes. 5500–4500 BCE The Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) emerged, probably within the Pontic-Caspian steppe (though their exact urheimat is debated).
The PIE peoples developed a religion focused on sacrificial ideology, which would influence the religions and cultures throughout Eurasia. The Ancient Era 50th to 26th century BCE c.3750 BCE The Proto-Semitic people emerged from a generally accepted urheimat in the Levant. The Proto-Semitic people would migrate throughout the Near East into Mesopotamia, Egypt, Ethiopia and the eastern shore of the Mediterranean.
3300–1300 BCE Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization. The shaded area does not include recent excavations. The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system and multi-storeyed houses, as well as for creating artifacts which could be linked to pre-vedic religions.
. 3102 BCE This was the beginning of Kaliyuga, a new age among the followers of Indian religions. 3100 BCE The initial form of Stonehenge was completed. The circular bank and ditch enclosure, about 110 metres (360 ft) across, may have been completed with a timber circle. 3100–2900 BCE Newgrange, the 250,000 ton (226,796.2 tonne) passage tomb aligned to the winter solstice in Ireland, was built.
 3000 BCE Sumerian Cuneiform emerged from the proto-literate Uruk period, allowing the codification of beliefs and creation of detailed historical religious records. The second phase of Stonehenge was completed and appeared to function as the first enclosed cremation cemetery in the British Isles. 2635–2610 BCE The oldest surviving Egyptian Pyramid was commissioned by Pharaoh Djoser. 2600 BCE Stonehenge began to take on the form of its final phase.
The wooden posts were replaced with bluestone. It began taking on an increasingly complex setup (including an altar, a portal, station stones, etc.) and shows consideration of solar alignments. 2560 BCE This is the approximate time accepted as the completion of the Great Pyramid of Giza, the oldest pyramid of the Giza Plateau. 25th to 16th centuries BCE 2494–2345 BCE The first of the oldest surviving religious texts, the Pyramid Texts, was composed in Ancient Egypt.
2200 BCE The Minoan Civilization developed in Crete. Citizens worshipped a variety of goddesses. 2150–2000 BCE The earliest surviving versions of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh—originally titled He who Saw the Deep (Sha naqba īmuru) or Surpassing All Other Kings (Shūtur eli sharrī)—were written. 1700–1100 BCE The oldest of the Hindu Vedas (scriptures), the Rig Veda was composed. 1600 BCE The ancient development of Stonehenge came to an end.
1500 BCE The Vedic Age began in India after the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilisation. 15th to 11th centuries BCE 1450 or 1250 BCE This is the traditionally accepted period in which, according to legend, the Israelite lawgiver Moses gave the Ten Commandments. 1351 or 1353 BCE The reign of Akhenaten, sometimes credited with starting the earliest known recorded monotheistic religion, in Ancient Egypt.
1300–1000 BCE The "standard" Akkadian version of the Epic of Gilgamesh was edited by Sin-liqe-unninni. 1250–600 BCE The Upanishads (Vedic texts) were composed, containing the earliest emergence of some of the central religious concepts of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. 1200 BCE The Greek Dark Age began. 1200 BCE The Olmecs built the earliest pyramids and temples in Central America. 10th to 1st centuries BCE 877–777 BCE The life of Parshvanatha, 23rd Tirthankara of Jainism.
 800 BCE The Greek Dark Age ends. 8th to 6th centuries BCE The Chandogya Upanishad is compiled, significant for containing the earliest to date mention of Krishna. Verse 3.17.6 mentions Krishna Devakiputra (Sanskrit: कृष्णाय देवकीपुत्रा) as a student of the sage Ghora Angirasa. 600–500 BCE The Earliest Confucian writing, Shu Ching, incorporates ideas of harmony and heaven.
599–527 BCE The life of Mahavira, 24th and last Tirthankara of Jainism. 563 BCE Gautama Buddha, founder of Buddhism was born. 551 BCE Confucius, founder of Confucianism, was born. 440 BCE Zoroastrianism entered recorded history. 399 BCE Socrates was tried for impiety. 369-372 BCE Birth of Mencius and Zhuang Zhou 300 BCE The oldest known version of the Tao Te Ching was written on bamboo tablets.
300 BCE Theravada Buddhism was introduced to Sri Lanka by the Venerable Mahinda. 250 BCE The Third Buddhist council was convened. 140 BCE The earliest grammar of Sanskrit literature was composed by Pāṇini. 100 BCE–500 CE The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali, constituting the foundational texts of Yoga, were composed. The Common Era 1st to 5th Centuries c.4 BCE–c.30/33 CE The life of Jesus of Nazareth, the central figure of Christianity.
31-36 The death of John the Baptist. 50–62 The first Christian Council was convened in Jerusalem. 70 The Siege of Jerusalem, the Destruction of the Temple and the rise of Rabbinic Judaism. 220 Manichaean Gnosticism was formed by the prophet Mani. 250 Some of the oldest parts of the Ginza Rba, a core text of Mandaean Gnosticism, were written. 250–900 Classic Mayan step pyramids were constructed.
313 The Edict of Milan decreed religious toleration in the Roman empire. 325 The first ecumenical council (the Council of Nicaea) was convened to attain a consensus on doctrine through an assembly representing all Christendom. It established the original Nicene Creed and fixed the date of Easter. It also confirmed the primacy of the Sees of Rome, Alexandria and Antioch, and granted the See of Jerusalem a position of honour.
c.350 The oldest record of the complete biblical texts (the Codex Sinaiticus) survives in a Greek translation called the Septuagint, dating to the 4th century CE. 380 Theodosius I declared Nicene Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire. 381 The second ecumenical council (the First Council of Constantinople) reaffirmed and revised the Nicene Creed, repudiating Arianism and Macedonianism.
381–391 Theodosius proscribed paganism within the Roman Empire. 393 A council of early Christian bishops listed and approved a biblical canon for the first time at the Synod of Hippo. Middle Ages (5th to 15th centuries) See also: History of religions § Middle Ages 5th to 10th centuries 405 St. Jerome completed the Vulgate, the first Latin translation of the Bible. 410 The Western Roman Empire began to decline, signalling the onset of the Dark Ages.
424 The Assyrian Church of the East formally separated from the See of Antioch and the western Syrian Church. 431 The third ecumenical council (the First Council of Ephesus) was convened as a result of the controversial teachings of Nestorius of Constantinople. It repudiated Nestorianism, proclaimed the Virgin Mary as the Theotokos (the God-bearer or Mother of God). It also repudiated Pelagianism and again reaffirmed the Nicene Creed.
449 The Second Council of Ephesus declared support for Eutyches and attacked his opponents. Originally convened as an ecumenical council, its ecumenical nature was rejected by the Chalcedonians, who denounced the council as latrocinium. 451 The fourth ecumenical council (the Council of Chalcedon) rejected the Eutychian doctrine of monophysitism, adopting instead the Chalcedonian Creed. It reinstated those deposed in 449, deposed Dioscorus of Alexandria and elevated the bishoprics of Constantinople and Jerusalem to the status of patriarchates.
451 The Oriental Orthodox Church rejected the christological view put forth by the Council of Chalcedon and was excommunicated. 480–547 Benedict of Nursia wrote his Rule, laying the foundation of Western Christian monasticism. 553 The fifth ecumenical council (the Second Council of Constantinople) repudiated the Three Chapters as Nestorian and condemned Origen of Alexandria. 570–632 The life of Muhammad ibn 'Abdullāh, the Prophet of Islam.
632–661 The Rashidun Caliphate heralded the Arab conquest of Persia, Egypt and Iraq, bringing Islam to those regions. 650 The verses of the Qur'an were compiled in the form of a book in the era of Uthman, the third Caliph of Islam. 661–750 The Umayyad Caliphate brought the Arab conquest of North Africa, Spain and Central Asia, marking the greatest extent of the Arab conquests and bringing Islam to those regions.
680–681 The sixth ecumenical council (the Third Council of Constantinople) rejected Monothelitism and Monoenergism. c.680 The division between Sunni and Shiites Muslims developed. 692 The Quinisext Council (also known as the Council in Trullo), an amendment to the 5th and 6th ecumenical councils, established the Pentarchy. 712 Kojiki, the oldest Shinto text, was written. 716–936 The migration of Zoroastrian (Parsi) communities from Persia to India began, caused by Muslim conquest of their lands and the ensuing persecution.
754 The latrocinium Council of Hieria supported iconoclasm. 787 The seventh ecumenical council (the Second Council of Nicaea) restored the veneration of icons and denounced iconoclasm. 788–820 The life of Hindu philosopher Adi Shankara, who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedānta. c.850 The oldest extant manuscripts of the vocalized Masoretic text, upon which modern editions are based, date to 9th century CE.
11th to 15th centuries 1054 The Great Schism between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches was formalised. 1095–1099 The First Crusade led to the capture of Jerusalem. 1107–1110 Sigurd I of Norway led the Norwegian Crusade against Muslims in Spain, the Balearic Islands and in Palestine. 1147–1149 The Second Crusade was waged in response to the fall of the County of Edessa. 1189–1192 In the Third Crusade European leaders attempted to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin.
1202–1204 The Fourth Crusade, originally intended to recapture Jerusalem, instead led to the sack of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. 1206 The Delhi Sultanate was established. 1209–1229 The Albigensian Crusade was conducted to eliminate Catharism in Occitania, Europe. 1217–1221 With the Fifth Crusade, Christian leaders again attempted (but failed) to recapture Jerusalem. 1222−1282 The life of Nichiren Daishonin, the Buddha of the Latter Day of the Law and founder of Nichiren Buddhism.
. Based at the Nichiren Shoshu Head Temple Taisekiji (Japan), this branch of Buddhism teaches the importance of chanting the mantra Nam Myōhō Renge Kyō. 1228–1229 The Sixth Crusade won control of large areas of the Holy Land for Christian rulers, more through diplomacy than through fighting. 1229 The Codex Gigas was completed by Herman the Recluse in the Benedictine monastery of Podlažice near Chrudim.
1244 Jerusalem was sacked again, instigating the Seventh Crusade. 1270 The Eighth Crusade was launched by Louis IX of France but largely petered out when Louis died shortly after reaching Tunis. 1271–1272 The Ninth Crusade failed. 1320 Pope John XXII laid the groundwork for future witch-hunts with the formalisation of the persecution of witchcraft. 1378–1417 The Roman Catholic Church split during the Western Schism.
1469–1539 The life of Guru Nanak, founder of Sikhism. 1484 Pope Innocent VIII marked the beginning of the classical European witch-hunts with his papal bull Summis desiderantes. 1486-1534 Chaitanya Mahaprabhu popularised the chanting of the Hare Krishna and composed the Siksastakam (eight devotional prayers) in Sanskrit. His followers, Gaudiya Vaishnavas, revere him as a spiritual reformer, a Hindu revivalist and an avatar of Krishna.
Early modern and Modern eras See also: History of religions § Modern period 16th Century 1500 African religious systems were introduced to the Americas, with the commencement of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. In the Spanish Empire, Catholicism was spread and encouraged through such institutions as the missions and the Inquisition. 1517 Martin Luther posted The Ninety-Five Theses on the door of All Saints' Church, Wittenberg, launching the Protestant Reformation.
1534 Henry VIII separated the English Church from Rome and made himself Supreme Head of the Church of England. 1555 [Atlantic Slave Trade begins]. 1562 The Massacre of Vassy sparked the first of a series of French Wars of Religion. 17th Century 1699 Guru Gobind Singh Ji created the Khalsa in Sikhism. 18th Century 1708 Guru Gobind Singh Ji, the last Sikh guru, died after instituting the Sikh holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib Ji, as the eternal Guru.
1770 Baron d'Holbach published The System of Nature said to be the first positive, unambiguous statement of atheism in the West. 1781 Ghanshyam, later known as Sahajanand Swami/Swaminarayan, was born in Chhapaiya at the house of Dharmadev and Bhaktimata. 1789–1799 In the Dechristianisation of France the Revolutionary Government confiscated Church properties, banned monastic vows and, with the passage of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, removed control of the Church from the Pope and subordinated it as a department of the Government.
The Republic also replaced the traditional Gregorian Calendar and abolished Christian holidays. 1791 Freedom of religion, enshrined in the Bill of Rights, was added as an amendment to the Constitution of the United States, forming an early and influential secular government. 19th Century 1801 The French Revolutionary Government and Pope Pius VII entered into the Concordat of 1801. While Roman Catholicism regained some powers and became recognized as "the religion of the great majority of the French", it was not afforded the latitude it had enjoyed prior to the Revolution and was not re-established as the official state religion.
The Church relinquished all claims to estate seized after 1790, the clergy was state salaried and was obliged to swear allegiance to the State. Religious freedom was restored. 1819–1850 The life of Siyyid 'Alí Muḥammad Shírází (Persian: سيد علی محمد شیرازی) Bab, the founder of Bábism. 1817–1892 The life of Bahá'u'lláh, founder of the Bahá'í Faith. 1823 September 21, The Mormon Prophet Joseph Smith saw the Angel Moroni and prophesied of what is now the Book Of Mormon 1830 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was founded by Joseph Smith.
1835–1908 The life of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the founder of the messianic Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam. 1836–1886 The life of Ramakrishna, saint and mystic of Bengal. 1841 Satguru Ram Singh Ji created the Namdhari sect within the Sikh religion. 1875 The Theosophical Society was formed in New York City by Helena Blavatsky, Henry Steel Olcott, William Quan Judge and others. 1879 Christian Science was granted its charter in Boston, Massachusetts.
1889 The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community was established. 1893 Swami Vivekananda's first speech at The Parliament of World Religions, Chicago, brought the ancient philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga to the western world. 1899 Aradia (aka The Gospel of the Witches), one of the earliest books describing post witchhunt European religious Witchcraft, was published by Charles Godfrey Leland. 20th Century 1901 The incorporation of the Spiritualists' National Union legally representing Spiritualism in the United Kingdom.
1904 Thelema was founded by Aleister Crowley. 1905 In France the law on the Separation of the Churches and the State was passed, officially establishing state secularism and putting an end to the funding of religious groups by the state. Becoming a place of pilgrimage for neo-druids and other pagans, the Ancient Order of Druids organised the first recorded reconstructionist ceremony in Stonehenge.
1908 The Khalifatul Masih was established in the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community as the "Second Manifestation of God's Power". 1915 The Ottoman Empire committed the Armenian Genocide killing 1.5 million. 1917 The October Revolution in Russia led to the annexation of all church properties and subsequent religious suppression. The 1917 Constitution of Mexico made Mexico a secular state. 1920 The Self Realization Fellowship Church of all Religions with its headquarters in Los Angeles, CA, was founded by Paramahansa Yogananda.
1926 Cao Dai founded. 1929 The Cristero War, fought between the secular government and religious Christian rebels in Mexico, ended. 1930 The Rastafari movement began following the coronation of Haile Selassie I as Emperor of Ethiopia. The Nation of Islam was founded in Detroit, Michigan. 1932 A neo-Hindu religious movement, the Brahma Kumaris or "Daughters of Brahma", started. Its origin can be traced to the group "Om Mandali", founded by Lekhraj Kripalani(1884–1969).
1939–1945 Millions of Jews were relocated and murdered by the Nazis during the Holocaust. 1947 First nation in the name of Islam was created called Pakistan. British India was partitioned into the Islamic nation of Pakistan and the secular nation of India with a Hindu majority. 1948 The modern state of Israel was established as a homeland for the Jews. 1952 Scientology was created. 1954 Wicca was publicised by Gerald Gardner.
 1956 B. R. Ambedkar was founded by Navayana Buddhism (Neo-Buddhism). And Ambedkar converted to Navayana with his more than 500,000 followers. 1960s Various Neopagan and New Age movements gained momentum. 1961 Unitarian Universalism was formed from the merger of Unitarianism and Universalism. 1962 The Church of All Worlds, the first American neo-pagan church, was formed by a group including Oberon Zell-Ravenheart, Morning Glory Zell-Ravenheart, and Richard Lance Christie.
1962–1965 The Second Vatican Council was convened. 1965 Srila Prabhupada established the International Society for Krishna Consciousness and introduced translations of the Bhagavad-Gita and Vedic Scriptures in mass production all over the world. 1966 Anton LaVey founded the Church of Satan. 1972–1984 The Stonehenge free festivals started. 1972–2004 Germanic Neopaganism (aka Heathenism, Heathenry, Ásatrú, Odinism, Forn Siðr, Vor Siðr, and Theodism) began to experience a second wave of revival.
 1973 Claude Vorilhon established the Raëlian Movement and changed his name to Raël following a purported extraterrestrial encounter in December 1973. 1975 The Temple of Set was founded in Santa Barbara, California. 1979 The Iranian Revolution resulted in the establishment of an Islamic Republic in Iran. 1981 The Stregherian revival continued.
"The Book of the Holy Strega" and "The Book of Ways" Volume I & II were published. 1984 Operation Blue Star in the holiest site of the Sikhs, the Golden Temple in Amritsar, led to Anti-Sikh riots in Delhi and adjoining regions, following the assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. 1985 The Battle of the Beanfield forced an end to the Stonehenge free festivals. 1989 Following the revolutions of 1989, the overthrow of many Soviet-style states allowed a resurgence in open religious practice in many Eastern European countries.
 1990s Reconstructionist Pagan movements (Celtic, Hellenic, Roman, Slavic, Baltic, Finnish, etc.) proliferate throughout Europe. 1993 The European Council convened in Copenhagen, Denmark, agreed to the Copenhagen Criteria, requiring religious freedom within all members and prospective members of the European Union. 1998 The Strega Arician Tradition was founded. 21st century See also: History of religion 2000 The Palestinian Authority created the Second Intifada in Israel and the Palestinian territories.
 Although largely political in nature, the uprising centred on religion. 2001 21 terrorists from Al-Qaeda killed 2,977 on September 11, 2001 in the name of Islam against the United States of America. Osama Bin Laden claimed responsibility and praised the attacks. 2001 In England and Wales, 390,127 people (almost 0.8%) stated their religion as Jedi on the 2001 Census forms, surpassing the numbers of Sikhs, Jews and Buddhists, and making it the fourth largest reported religion in the country.
In the same census, 2.6% of the population of Brighton claimed to be Jedi. 2006 Sectarian rivalries exploded in Iraq between Sunni and Shiite Muslims, with each side targeting the other in terrorist acts, and bombings of mosques and shrines. 2008 Nepal, the world's only Hindu Kingdom, was declared a secular state by its Constituent Assembly after declaring the state a Republic on 28 May 2008.
2009 The Church of Scientology in France was fined €600,000 and several of its leaders were fined and imprisoned for defrauding new recruits of their savings. The state failed to disband the church owing to legal changes occurring over the same time period. 2011 Civil war broke out in Syria over domestic political issues. The country soon split along sectarian lines between Sunni, Alawite and Shiite Muslims.
 War crimes and acts of genocide were committed by both parties as religious leaders on each side condemned the other as heretics. The Syrian civil war soon became a battleground for regional sectarian unrest, as fighters joined the fight from as far away as North America and Europe, as well as Iran and the Arab states. 2014 The Islamic Caliphate was established by the self-proclaimed Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in regions of war torn Syria and Iraq, drawing global support from radical Sunni Muslims.
 This was a modern-day attempt to re-establish Islamic self-rule in accordance with strict adherence to Shariah- Islamic religious law. In the wake of the Syrian civil war, Islamic extremists targeted the indigenous Arab Christian communities. In acts of genocide, numerous ancient Christian and Yazidi communities were evicted and threatened with death by various Muslim Shia fighter groups.
 After ISIS terrorist forces infiltrated and took over large parts of northern Iraq from Syria, many ancient Christian and Yazidi enclaves were destroyed. 2015 World Yoga Community was registered in USA See also Axis age Evolutionary origin of religions History of religions Holocene era Ionian stage Paleolithic Religion Prehistoric religion Religion and mythology Tarantian stage Notes ^ "Historic writing".
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aljazeera.com. ^ "Victims of Palestinian Violence and Terrorism since September 2000". GxMSDev. ^ "Bin Laden claims responsibility for 9/11". CBC News. October 29, 2004. Retrieved January 11, 2009. Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden appeared in a new message aired on an Arabic TV station Friday night, for the first time claiming direct responsibility for the 2001 attacks against the United States. ^ "Ethnicity and Religion: 'Jedi'".
Census 2001. Retrieved 20 November 2006. ^ "Iraq War Timeline, 2006". infoplease.com. ^ Susan Sachs (October 27, 2009). "Paris court convicts Scientology of fraud". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2009-10-28. ^ "Scientologists convicted of fraud". BBC. 2009-10-27. Retrieved 2009-10-28. ^ a b Steven Erlanger (October 27, 2009). "French Branch of Scientology Convicted of Fraud". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-10-28.
^ Devorah Lauter (October 27, 2009). "French Scientology group convicted of fraud". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-10-28. ^ "The Religious Component of the Syrian Conflict: More than Perception". georgetown.edu. ^ The Real News Network. "In Syria Both Sides Fear Annihilation If They Lay Down Arms". The Real News Network. ^ "20,000 foreign fighters flock to Syria, Iraq to join terrorists". cbsnews.
com. 10 February 2015. ^ How ISIS Governs Its Caliphate(subscription required) ^ "One Year of the Islamic State Caliphate, Mapped". Foreign Policy. ^ From Paper State to Caliphate: The Ideology of the Islamic State ^ The Return of Khilafah, Dabiq magazine ^ a b "The Real War on Christianity". Foreign Policy. ^ "Persecution In Syria". Christian Freedom International. ^ "Ancient Christian Communities In Middle East Could Be Eradicated, Says Author".
The Daily Caller. ^ Raya Jalabi. "Who are the Yazidis and why is Isis hunting them?". the Guardian. Bibliography Smith, Laura (2007), Illustrated Timeline of Religion, ISBN 1-4027-3606-1 Bowker, John (2006), World Religions, ISBN 0-7566-1772-3 Sangave, Dr. Vilas Adinath (2001), Facets of Jainology: Selected Research Papers on Jain Society, Religion, and Culture, Mumbai: Popular Prakashan, ISBN 978-81-7154-839-2 Glasenapp, Helmuth Von (1999), Jainism, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1376-2 Fisher, Mary Pat (1997), Living Religions: An Encyclopedia of the World's Faiths, London: I.
B.Tauris, ISBN 1-86064-148-2 Deo, Shantaram Bhalchandra (1956), History of Jaina monachism from inscriptions and literature, Pune: Deccan College Post-graduate and Research Institute Zimmer, Heinrich (1952), Joseph Campbell, ed., Philosophy of India, London, E.C. 4: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, Not in copyright External links Patheos Interactive Tree Lens Interactive timeline illustrating the history of religion Flash animation pausing at various significant conversions/conquests v t e Timelines of religion Christianity Timeline Bible Ussher English Reformation Intelligent design Jerusalem Jesus Joan of Arc Missions Mormonism Book of Mormon Orthodoxy in America Orthodoxy in Greece Roman Catholic Church Opus Dei Syro-Malabar Catholic Church Greek polytheism Theogony Chaos Chronos Prometheus (creator of humans) Ages of Man Islam Muslim history Jerusalem Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula Judaism Jewish history Hebrew Bible Hebrew prophets Jerusalem Zionism Antisemitism Other 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History of ReligionThe WorldReligionWhich is the world's oldest religion? What is the evidence of it?Maria Wirth, works at Freecie.comAnswered 193w agoOriginally Answered: What is the world's oldest religion?From the Vedic scriptures, too, Hinduism (today’s name for Sanatana Dharma) is the oldest. However, one should be a little careful with the term religion. In the west it usually means a rigid “belief system”, with one book and one founder.
India’s ancient religion is different. IRishis tried to find out (see) what the truth about us and the universe is and how to live life in the best way (dharmic lifestyle) and they left notes into their insights. Hindu Dharma does not depend on blind belief in something that never can be known whether it is true, like that Jesus is the only son of God who saved us through his death and resurrection or that Prophet Mohammed was given the last and final message by Allah.
Both religions prefer their flock not to think about those dogmas but just believe them. Hinduism is different here, too. One is meant to use one’s intelligence and realize that there must be some invisible intelligence and power behind this visible manifestation. And then try out one of the many suggestion (including murti puja, dhyan, yoga, bhakti, gyan, karma, etc. ) to ‘realize’ (feel as real this divinity).
Your response is private.Is this answer still relevant and up to date?YesNoBalaji Viswanathan, an engineer.Answered 127w agoOriginally Answered: Which is the oldest religion?We don't know what is the oldest religion. It is quite possible that such a religion is long extinct. Religious practices are found even in urban agglomerations found 10000 years ago such as Çatalhöyük. Sumerians also had literature such as Kesh temple hymn that are dated to 2600 BCE.
Those religions are all long gone. Among the existing major religions the oldest is Hinduism. Vedas form the oldest body of religious works that are still in common use. Rigveda is dated to 1500 BCE or earlier and is used in the exact same form to date. It is likely that the religious ideas rose much earlier as complex literature usually follows basic religious structures. In parallel, we have more archaelogical evidence from the Middle Eastern Mittani kingdom that used the same gods as the Vedas (http://www.
jstor.org/stable/595878). Hebrew ideas also likely arose from that period, but it was not until the 5th century BCE work of Torah did it get a more religious form. There is still some controversy on the origins of Jainism. Historians generally believe Mahavira to be the founder of the modern Jainism. We don't have any Jain agamas older than 6th century BCE. However, those religious texts allude to 23 religious leaders called the Tirthankara who came before Mahavira.
Assuming that those gurus came one per generation, the first of the Tirthankaras could have come as early as 1200 BCE. As we unearth the past of India, we might find both Hinduism and Jainism much older than what we currently assume.I have a more detailed post on religions here: Brief History of the World: Part 4. The Age of Philosophy Your response is private.Is this answer still relevant and up to date?YesNoJohn Bartram, Field archaeologist, geophysical surveyor, man of the world and family man.
Answered 61w agoOriginally Answered: What is the oldest religion on earth?Below: Homo heidelbergensis - forensic facial reconstruction/approximation; an extinct species of the genus Homo that lived in Africa, Europe and western Asia between 600,000 and 200,000 years ago.We do not know for sure the origin of religion; there is some evidence it began with:Homo heidelbergensis, deliberately disposing of deceased individuals, usually in funerary caches.
The graves, located throughout Eurasia (e.g. the Pontnewydd Cave (Wales), Atapuerca Mountains (Spain), Qafzeh, Es Skhul, Krapina (Croatia), are believed to represent the beginnings of ceremonial rites, although there is some debate about this.Social behaviourRecent findings in a pit in Atapuerca (Spain) of 28 human skeletons suggest that H. heidelbergensis might have been the first species of the Homo genus to bury its dead.
 Steven Mithen believes that H. heidelbergensis, like its descendant H. neanderthalensis, acquired a pre-linguistic system of communication. No forms of art have been uncovered, although red ochre, a mineral that can be used to mix a red pigment which is useful as a paint, has been found at Terra Amata excavations in the south of France.Some take a positive view:At the bottom of a natural cave shaft, 43 feet deep, the Pit of Bones preserves some 28 individuals of Homo heidelbergensis.
The bones of cave bears also occur in the pit. It’s thought that the bears tumbled down the shaft by accident while seeking places to hibernate. But what about the early human bodies? No signs of tool butchery or other food remains occur. A single stone handaxe was the only tool found in the pit, made of a type of stone unknown in the vicinity. According to some researchers, the bodies must have been purposely thrown in by their relatives in a kind of ritual burial.
(Smithsonian)As I wrote, we do not know for sure; religion seems to go back a very long way, perhaps before modern man.Riyansh Biswas, History freak! Loves to know about people and cultures from those bygone times!Answered 51w agoOriginally Answered: What is the oldest religion?Currently, it is Hinduism. It dates back to as far as 5000 B.C.E recorded history although it could very well be older.Although the adherents did not name it that, it was named that way by the British.
The adherents call it “Sanatan Dharma” roughly translating to “The Eternal Truth”.The adherents are predominantly found in India and is currently the third largest faith.It is also one of the only faiths with modern scientific base. Here is a quote by Carl Sagan, the acclaimed American astronomer and astrophysicist.“The Hindu religion is the only one of the world’s great faiths dedicated to the idea that the Cosmos itself undergoes an immense, indeed an infinite, number of deaths and rebirths.
It is the only religion in which the time scales correspond to those of modern scientific cosmology. Its cycles run from our ordinary day and night to a day and night of Brahma, 8.64 billion years long. Longer than the age of the Earth or the Sun and about half the time since the Big Bang.”― Carl Sagan, Cosmos