This 1966 Pontiac GTO is an example of a classic muscle car Muscle car is an American term used to refer to a variety of high-performance automobiles. The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines muscle cars as "any of a group of American-made 2-door sports cars with powerful engines designed for high-performance driving." A large V8 engine is fitted in a 2-door, rear wheel drive, family-style compact, mid-size or full-size car designed for four or more passengers.
Sold at an affordable price, muscle cars are intended for street use and occasional drag racing. They are distinct from two-seat sports cars and expensive 2+2 GTs intended for high-speed touring and road racing. Etymology According to Muscle Cars, a book written by Peter Henshaw, a "muscle car" is "exactly what the name implies. It is a product of the American car industry adhering to the hot rodder's philosophy of taking a small car and putting a large-displacement engine in it.
The Muscle Car is Charles Atlas kicking sand in the face of the 98 horsepower weakling." Henshaw further asserts that the muscle car was designed for straight-line speed, and did not have the "sophisticated chassis", "engineering integrity", or "lithe appearance" of European high-performance cars. In the United States, lightweight cars featuring high-performance engines were termed "supercar" before the classification of muscle car became popular.
 For example, the 1957 Rebel's "potent mill turned the lightweight Rambler into a veritable supercar." "From the mid-sixties to the mid-seventies, what we now think of as muscle cars were more commonly called 'Supercars,' often (though not always) spelled with a capital S." This term described the "dragstrip bred" affordable mid-size cars of the 1960s and early 1970s that were equipped with large, powerful V8 engines and rear-wheel-drive.
 "In 1966, the supercar became an official industry trend" as the four domestic automakers "needed to cash in on the supercar market" with eye-catching, heart-stopping cars. Examples of the use of the supercar description for the early muscle models include the May 1965 Car Life road test of the Pontiac GTO along with how "Hurst puts American Motors into the Supercar club with the 390 Rogue" (the SC/Rambler) to fight in "the Supercar street racer gang" market segment.
 Moreover, the "SC" in the model name stood for "SuperCar". The supercar market segment in the U.S. at the time included special versions of regular production models that were positioned in several sizes and market segments (such as the "economy supercar"), as well as limited edition, documented dealer-converted vehicles. However, the supercar term by that time "had been diluted and branded with a meaning that did not respect the unique qualities of the 'muscle car'.
" Opinions vary as to whether high-performance full-size cars, compacts, and pony car qualify as muscle cars. History 1949 Rocket 88 engine Hudson Hornet: Rocket 88's only competitor Early production models Opinions on the origin of the muscle car vary, but the 1949 Oldsmobile Rocket 88, created in response to public interest in speed and power, is often cited as the first muscle car.
It featured America's first high-compression overhead valve V8 in the smaller, lighter Oldsmobile 76/Chevy body for six-cylinder engines (as opposed to bigger Olds 98 luxury body). Jack Nerrad wrote in Driving Today, "the Rocket V-8 set the standard for every American V-8 engine that would follow it for at least three decades[...] With a displacement of 303 cubic inches and topped by a two-barrel carburetor, the first Rocket V-8 churned out 135 hp (101 kW; 137 PS) at 3,600 rpm and 263 pound force-feet (357 N⋅m) of torque at a lazy 1800 rpm [and] no mid-range car in the world, except the Hudson Hornet, came close to the Rocket Olds performance potential.
.." Nerad added that the Rocket 88 was "the hit of NASCAR’s 1950 season, winning eight of the 10 races. Given its lightning-like success, one could clearly make the case that the Olds 88 with its 135 horsepower (101 kW) V-8 was the first 'musclecar'..." Steve Dulcich, writing in Popular Hot Rodding, also cites Oldsmobile, concurrently with Cadillac, as having "launched the modern era of the high-performance V-8 with the introduction of the 'Rocket 88' overhead-valve V8 in 1949.
" 1955 Chrysler C-300, "America's most powerful car", had 300 horsepower (220 kW) America's fastest 1957 sedan: Rambler Rebel had lightweight unibody construction and V8 engine Other manufacturers showcased performance hardware in limited-edition models. Chrysler led the way with its 1955 C-300, an inspired blend of Hemi power and luxury-car trappings that became the new star of NASCAR.
With 300 hp (224 kW; 304 PS), it was advertised as "America's Most Powerful Car". Capable of accelerating from 0 to 60 mph (97 km/h) in 9.8 seconds and reaching 130 miles per hour (209 km/h), the 1955 Chrysler 300 is also recognized as one of the best-handling cars of its era. Studebaker entered the muscle car scene in 1956 with the Golden Hawk powered by a 352 cu in (5.8 L) Packard V8 with 275 bhp (205 kW; 279 PS).
For the 1957 model year, the Rambler Rebel was the fastest stock American sedan according to Motor Trend.Musclecar Enthusiast magazine describes this was "what some people believe to be the very first muscle car." the compact-sized (for the era) 255 hp (190 kW; 259 PS) unibody 1957 Rebel might be "better known had AMC been successful in their attempt to offer it with Bendix fuel injection.
" The popularity and performance of muscle cars grew in the early 1960s, as Mopar (Dodge, Plymouth, and Chrysler) and Ford battled for supremacy in drag racing. The 1962 Dodge Dart 413 cu in (6.8 L) Max Wedge, for example, could run a 13-second 1/4-mile dragstrip at over 100 miles per hour (161 km/h). In 1961 Chevrolet introduced the SS package on the Impala for $53.80, with included an optional 409 cu in v8 with 425 hp and upgraded brakes, tires, and suspension.
By 1964, General Motors' lineup boasted Oldsmobile, Chevrolet, and Pontiac muscle cars, and Buick fielded a muscle car entry a year later. For 1964 and 1965, Ford had its 427 cu in (7.0 L) Thunderbolts, and Mopar unveiled the 426 cu in (7.0 L) Hemi engine. The Pontiac GTO was an option package that included Pontiac's 389 cu in (6.4 L) V8 engine, floor-shifted transmission with Hurst shift linkage, and special trim.
In 1966 the GTO became a model in its own right. The project, led by Pontiac division president John DeLorean, technically violated GM's policy, limiting its smaller cars to 330 cu in (5.4 L) displacement, but the new model proved more popular than expected, and inspired GM and its competitors to produce numerous imitators. American Motors, though late entering the 1960s muscle car market, produced "an impressive array of performance cars in a relatively short time," said Motor Trend.
"The first stirrings of AMC performance came in 1965, when the dramatic, if ungainly, Rambler Marlin fastback was introduced to battle the Ford Mustang and Plymouth Barracuda." Although the Marlin was a flop in terms of sales and initial performance, AMC gained some muscle-car credibility in 1967, when it made both the Marlin and the "more pedestrian" Rebel available with its new 280 hp (209 kW; 284 PS), 343 cu in (5.
6 L) "Typhoon" V8. In 1968, the company offered two pony car muscle car contenders: the Javelin and its truncated two-seat variant, the AMX a sports car in the Grand Touring tradition. Horsepower and marketing wars Although the sales of true muscle cars were relatively modest by total Detroit production standards, they had value in publicity. Competition between manufacturers meant that buyers had the choice of ever-more powerful engines.
A horsepower war was started that peaked in 1970, with some models advertising as much as 450 hp (336 kW; 456 PS). Muscle cars attracted young customers into showrooms, and they bought the standard editions of these mid-size cars. To enhance the "halo" effect of these models, the manufacturers modified some of them into turn-key drag racers. Ford built 200 lightweight Ford Galaxies for drag racing in 1963.
All non-essential equipment was omitted. Modifications included fiberglass panels, aluminum bumpers, traction bars, and a competition-specification 427 cu in (7.0 L) engine factory rated at a conservative 425 hp (317 kW; 431 PS). This full-size car could run the quarter mile in a little over 12 seconds. Also built in 1963 were 5,000 road-legal versions that could be used as every day drivers (Ford claimed 0-60 in less than 6 seconds for the similarly powered 1966 Galaxie 500XL 427).
 Street-legal drag racer: 1964 Ford Thunderbolt with 427 V8 in lightened midsize Ford Fairlane body Another Ford lightweight was the 1964 Ford Thunderbolt that utilized the mid-size Fairlane body. A stock Thunderbolt could run the quarter-mile (402 m) in 11.76 seconds at 122.7 mph (197.5 km/h), and Gaspar "Gas" Ronda dominated the NHRA World Championship with his Thunderbolt with a best time of 11.
6 seconds at 124 mph (200 km/h). The Thunderbolt included the 427 engine with special exhausts; though technically legal for street use, the car was too "raucous" for the public roads, according to a Hot Rod magazine quote, "for driving to and from the strip, let alone on the street in everyday use". Massive traction bars, asymmetrical rear springs, and a trunk-mounted 95-pound (43 kg) bus battery were intended to maximize traction for the 500 bhp (373 kW)car.
 Sun visors, exterior mirror, sound-deadener, armrests, jack, and lug wrench were omitted to save weight. The car was given lightweight Plexiglass windows, and early versions had fiberglass front body panels and bumpers, later changed to aluminum to meet NHRA regulations. Base price was US$3,780. A total of 111 Thunderbolts were built, and Ford contracted Dearborn Steel Tubing to help with assembly.
 In 1963, General Motors' Chevrolet division produced 57 full-size Impala coupes equipped with option package RPOZ-11, which added $1237.40 to the vehicle base price. They were the only automobiles the division ever built expressly for drag racing. The package included a specially modified W series 409 engine, now displacing 427 cubic inches, and was officially rated at 430 bhp (321 kW). With a compression ratio of 13.
5:1, the engine required high-octane fuel. The RPOZ-11 package had numerous modifications to reduce weight, including aluminum hood, fenders, fan shroud, and bumpers. Sound-deadening material was removed, as were non-essentials such as heater and radio. Other racing features included a two-piece intake manifold, special exhaust manifolds, cylinder heads and pistons, a deep-sump oil pan, and cowl-induction air cleaner.
The RPOZ-11 package was discontinued when General Motors ceased involvement in racing in 1964. The 1964 Dodge 426 Hemi Lightweight produced over 500 bhp (373 kW). This "top drag racer" had an aluminium hood, lightweight front bumpers, fenders, doors and lower valance, magnesium front wheels, lightweight Dodge van seat, Lexan side windows, one windshield wiper, and no sun visors or sound deadening.
Like other lightweights of the era, it came with a factory disclaimer: Designed for supervised acceleration trials. Not recommended for general everyday driving because of the compromises in the all-round characteristics which must be made for this type of vehicle. Also too "high-strung" for the street was Chrysler’s small-volume-production 1965 drag racer, the 550 bhp (410 kW) Plymouth Satellite 426 Hemi.
Although the detuned 1966 version (the factory rating underestimated it at 425 bhp (317 kW)) has been criticized for poor brakes and cornering, Car and Driver described it as "the best combination of brute performance and tractable street manners we've ever driven." The car's understated appearance belied its performance: it could run a 13.8-second quarter mile at 104 mph (167 km/h). Base price was $3,850.
 Likewise, Chevrolet eschewed flamboyant stripes for their 1969 Chevelle COPO 427. The car could run a 13.3 sec. quarter-mile at108 mph (174 km/h). Chevrolet rated the engine at 425 hp (317 kW), but the NHRA claimed a truer450 hp (340 kW). The 1969 COPO Chevelles were "among the most feared muscle cars of any day. And they didn't need any badges." Base price was US$3,800. For 1970, Chevrolet offered the Chevelle SS 454, also at a base price of US$3,800.
Its 454 cu in (7.4 L) engine was rated at 450 hp (336 kW), the highest factory rating at that time. Car Life magazine wrote: "It's fair to say that the Supercar as we know it may have gone as far as it's going." The general trend towards higher performance in factory-stock cars reflected the importance of the youth market. A key appeal of muscle cars was that they offered the American car culture relatively affordable and powerful street performance in models that could also be used for drag racing.
But as size, optional equipment and luxury appointments increased, engines had to be more powerful to maintain performance levels, and the cars became more expensive. 1970 Plymouth GTX 440: "more performance per dollar" than most other cars of its time In response to rising cost and weight, a secondary trend towards more basic "budget" muscle cars emerged in 1967 and 1968. These included the Plymouth Road Runner, the "original budget Supercar"; the Plymouth GTX, which at a base price of US$3,355 offered "as much performance-per-dollar as anything on the market, and more than most"; and the Dodge Super Bee.
Manufacturers also offered bigger engines in their compact models, sometimes making them lighter, roomier, and faster than their own pony-car lines. The 340 cu in (5.6 L)-powered 1970 Plymouth Duster was one of these smaller, more affordable cars. Based on the compact-sized Plymouth Valiant and priced at US$2,547, the 340 Duster posted a 6.0-second 0-60 mph (97 km/h)time and ran the quarter mile in 14.
7 seconds at 94.3 mph (151.8 km/h). This "reasonably fast" compact muscle car had a stiff, slightly lowered suspension which, in the view of Hot Rod magazine at the time, let the car "ride in an acceptable fashion". However, a retrospective article by Consumer Guide referred to "a punishing ride" and trim that was "obviously low-budget." The 1970 model came with front disc brakes and without hood scoops.
The only high-performance cues were dual exhausts and modest decals. Tom Gale, former Chrysler vice president of design, described the car as "a phenomenal success. It had a bulletproof chassis, was relatively lightweight, and had a good power train. These were 200,000-mile (320,000 km) cars."Hot Rod rated the Duster "one of the best, if not the best, dollar buy in a performance car" in 1970.
 "The Machine": factory-modified 1970 AMC Rebel ran 14.4-second quarter mile in stock trim American Motors' mid-sized 1970 Rebel Machine, developed in consultation with Hurst Performance, was also built for normal street use. It had a 390 cu in (6.4 L) engine developing 340 hp (254 kW)—a "moderate performer" that gave a 0-60 mph (97 km/h) time of 6.8 seconds and a quarter mile in 14.
4 seconds at 99 mph (159 km/h). Early examples came in "patriotic" red, white, and blue. Jack Nerad wrote in Driving Today that it was "a straight-up competitor to the GTO, et al. ... the engine was upgraded to 340 hp (254 kW; 345 PS) a four-barrel Motorcraft carburetor and other hot rod trickery. The torque figure was equally prodigious—430 pound-feet at a lazy 3600 rpm. In this car the engine was practically the entire story.
" With four-speed manual transmission, the car "could spring from zero to 60 miles per hour in just 6.4 seconds..." In Nerad's view, the car "somehow, someway deserves to be considered among the Greatest Cars of All Time." An article in Mopar Muscle said, "by far the most stunning thing for a car with this level of performance and standard equipment was the sticker of just US$3,475." The "plain wrapper" 1969 Plymouth Road Runner, that was Motor Trend magazine's Car of the Year, was modified with the addition of a high-performance factory camshaft plus non-standard, high-performance induction and exhaust manifolds, carburetor, and slick tires with tire lettering to run a 14.
7 quarter at 100.6 mph (161.9 km/h) with its 383 cu in (6.3 L) engine. In this customized form, the car cost US$3,893. In 1968, Dodge's $3,027 Super Bee ran a 15-second quarter at 100 mph (160 km/h) on street tires with the same engine, only stock. Hot Rod magazine categorized the 340 cu in (5.6 L) 1968 Plymouth Barracuda 4-seater as "a supercar, without any doubt attached...also a 'pony car', a compact and a workhorse" with enough rear seat leg- and head-room for "passengers to ride back there without distress", and "a flip-up door to the trunk area for ferrying some pretty sizeable loads of cargo".
It could run a quarter mile in 13.33 seconds at 106.50 mph (171.40 km/h)on the drag strip. The base price was $2,796.00; the price as tested by Hot Rod was $3,652. Market segment decline The muscle car market segment was in high gear "until shifting social attitudes, crippling insurance rates, the Clean Air Act and the fuel crisis removed the cars from the market in the early 1970s." The OPEC oil embargo led to price controls and gasoline rationing, as well as higher prices.
"Muscle cars quickly became unaffordable and impractical for many people." The automobile insurance industry also levied surcharges on all high-powered models, an added cost that put many muscle cars out of reach of their intended buyers. Simultaneously, efforts to combat air pollution focused Detroit's attention on emissions control. A majority of muscle cars came optioned with high-compression powerplants-some as high as 11:1.
Prior to the oil embargo, 100-octane fuel was common, however, following the passage of the Clean Air Act of 1970, octane ratings were lowered to 91-due in part to the removal of lead as a valve lubricant. Unleaded gasoline was phased in as a result. In the mid-1970s, some of the muscle car market converged into personal luxury performance cars. Some nameplates, such as Chevrolet's SS or Oldsmobile's 442, would become sport appearance packages (known in the mid to late 1970s as the vinyl and decal option-Plymouth's Road Runner was an upscale decor package for their Volare coupes).
Australia Australian muscle: 1970 Holden HG Monaro GTS 350 V8 Australia developed its own muscle cars around the same period, the big three manufacturers being Ford Australia, Holden or Holden Dealer Team (by then part of General Motors), and Chrysler Australia. The cars were specifically developed to run in the Armstrong 500 (miles) (now the Supercheap Auto Parts 1000km). The demise of these cars was brought about by a change in racing rules requiring that 200 examples had to be sold to the general public before the car could qualify (homologation).
In 1972, the government banned supercars from the streets after two notable cases. The first instance was a Wheels magazine journalist driving at 150 mph (240 km/h) in a 1971 Ford XY Falcon GTHO Phase III 351 cu in (5.8 L). While the car was getting exposure in the press, the second incident occurred in George Street, Sydney, when a young male was caught driving at an estimated 150 mph (240 km/h) through the busy street in a 1971 Ford Falcon GTHO Phase III, drag racing a Holden Monaro GTS 350.
This was known in Australia as "The Supercar scare". Ford produced what is considered to be the first Australian muscle car in 1967, the 289 cu in (4.7 L) Windsor – powered Ford Falcon GTXR. Months later, in 1968, Australia would see its first homegrown two-door muscle car, the Holden Monaro GTS 327. Ford continued to release faster models, culminating in the Ford Falcon GTHO Phase III of 1971, which was powered by a factory modified 351 Cleveland.
Along with its GT and GTHO models, Ford, starting with the XW model in 1969, introduced a "sporty" GS model, available across the Falcon range. The basic GS came with a 188 cu in (3.1 L) six-cylinder engine, but the 302 cu in (4.9 L) and 351 cu in (5.8 L) Windsor (replaced by the Cleveland engines for the XY) V8 engines were optional. Ford's larger, more luxurious Fairlane was also available with these engines and some were allegedly made with the same 4V 300 bhp (224 kW) 351 cu in (5.
8 L) Cleveland engine used in the XY GT. The XA GT was available in sedan and coupe body styles and while the GTHO Phase IV never went into production, 250 GTs were made with RPO 83 package which featured a long list of race-oriented upgrades for homologation purposes, including an uprated 351 Cleveland making an estimated 254 kW (340 hp). The GT continued through the XB series but was discontinued for the XC series of 1976, leaving the GS package as the sole sporting option, which was available across all body styles.
Ford Falcon Cobra 351 V8 General Motors Holden produced the Holden Monaro with 161 cu in (2.6 L), 186 cu in (3.0 L) (186 and 186S specification) 6-cylinder engines, 307 cu in (5.0 L), 327 cu in (5.4 L), and 350 cu in (5.7 L) Chevrolet smallblocks, and later 253 cu in (4.1 L) and 308 cu in (5.0 L) Holden V8. This was followed by the release of four high-performance Toranas, the LC GTR-XU1 (1970–1971), LJ GTR-XU1 (1972–1973), L34 (1975), and the A9X (1977).
The LC XU1 Torana was fitted with a 186 cu in (3.0 L) triple carbureted 6-cylinder engine, later increased with the release of the LJ model to 202 cu in (3.3 L), as opposed to the 308 cu in (5.0 L) single q-barrel carbureted V8 in the SL/R 5000 L34, and SLR5000/SS A9X. There were many homologation changes over the four or so years of XU-1 production culminating in a special "Bathurst 1973" specification LJ XU-1.
The L34 was primarily an engine option released in 1975 on the lesser specification LH SL/R 5000 sedan of 1974, with the initial engine development carried out by Repco, the company famous for designing the V8 engine that took Jack Brabham and Denny Hulme to the 1966 and 1967 Formula One World Championships; a factory HO pack providing an upgraded camshaft, Holley carb, and other race ready items was also available.
The basic L34 also gained other homologation features such as improved brakes and wheel arch flares. The A9X was an option on the LX SLR5000 sedan and the LX SS hatchback (2-door) and unlike the L34 package was not an engine performance upgrade, but a suspension, differential, and brake upgrade, as the L34 engine was already homologated for Group C use. Hence, the A9X had a basically standard 308ci engine.
Chrysler produced the R/T Valiant Charger from 1971 to 1973, when the R/Ts were discontinued; the dominant R/T models were the E38 and E49 with high-performance 265 cu in (4.3 L) Hemi engines featuring triple Weber carburetors. Chrysler VH Valiant Charger R/T Chrysler apparently considered a high-performance V8 program importing 338 340 cu in (5.6 L) V8 engines from the U.S. This high-performance project never went ahead, and the engines were subsequently fitted to the upmarket 770 model Charger.
Initially, this model was designated "SE" E55 340 (V8) and only available with automatic transmission; with a model change to the VJ in 1973, the engine became an option, and the performance was lessened. All Chrysler performance Chargers were discontinued in 1974 with the end of high-performance, the 265 Hemi, and 340 V8 engines. The Australian muscle car era is considered to have ended with the release of the Australian Design Rule regarding emissions in ADR27a in 1976.
An exception to this rule was the small number of factory-built Bathurst 1000 homologation specials that were constructed after 1976; these are considered to be muscle cars. Examples of these homologation specials include the Torana A9X and the Bathurst Cobras. Several highly modified high-performance road-going Commodores were produced by Peter Brock's HDT Special Vehicles through the early and mid-1980s.
These "homologation specials" were produced to meet both Australian Group C and international Group A touring car racing regulations. Models included the VC Group C, the VH SS Group III with a 0–100 km/h of 8.6 seconds, the Blue VK SS Group A, and the burgundy VL SS Group A (the VK and VL Group A cars were powered by a slightly de-stroked 304 cu in (4.9 L) version of the Holden V8 engine to allow the car to run at a lighter weight in touring car racing.
The HDT also produced several 5.0 L V8 powered WB Statesmans released under the name Magnum. They also looked at developing a 5.0 L V8 powered Opel Monza in the mid-1980s (to be named the HDT Monza), although as the Monza was a 1970s model car and resembled the outdated Torana A9X Hatchback it never passed the planning stage. Related pickup trucks Another related type of vehicle is the car-based pickup, known colloquially in Australia as a ute (short for utility).
Holden and Ford Australia both make such vehicles, under the names Holden Ute and Ford Falcon Ute respectively. Examples of these in the U.S. were the performance versions of the Ford Ranchero, GMC Sprint / Caballero, and Chevrolet El Camino with high-output V8 engines, that are no longer in production. In Australia, sport and recreation-oriented panel vans and utes became immensely popular with younger buyers in the 1970s and played a part in the decline in the popularity of performance coupes there.
By the middle of the decade, the manufacturers had caught onto this phenomenon and began marketing lifestyle-oriented vans and utilities from the factory. The Holden Sandman, introduced in 1974, is the most well-known of these cars; Ford competed with its Surferoo and Sundowner models, and the Sandman's popularity led to Chrysler introducing a panel van body style on the 1976 CL Valiant, with a range including sporting Drifter and Sports Pack models, although by this time the market for such vehicles had declined and relatively few Valiant panel vans were sold.
Models were generally available with a range of six-cylinder and V8 engines, and often featured wild striping and graphics packages in addition to a wide variety of leisure-oriented options, and styling and trim borrowed from their muscle car counterparts. By the late 1970s, though, the van craze was in decline; a struggling Chrysler Australia discontinued its commercial vehicles altogether in 1978, and sales of the Sandman were in decline, with buyers often ordering their cars without the famous stripes and decals.
Ford continued its Sundowner model in the new-generation XD Falcon in 1979 but few were sold. Muscle car revival 1987 Buick Grand National Performance-type cars began to make a return in the United States during the 1980s. Increases in production costs and tighter regulations governing pollution and safety, these vehicles were not designed to the formula of the traditional low-cost muscle cars.
The introduction of electronic fuel injection and overdrive transmission for the remaining 1960s muscle car survivors, such as the Ford Mustang, Chevrolet Camaro, and Pontiac Firebird, helped sustain a market share for them alongside personal luxury coupes with performance packages, such as the Buick Regal T-Type or Grand National, Ford Thunderbird Turbo Coupe, and Chevrolet Monte Carlo SS circa 1983-88.
GM's personal luxury coupes (known as the G-body which also included the Oldsmobile 442 and Pontiac Grand Prix 2 + 2 by the late 1980s) were phased out in 1987 and 1988 where its GM10 (W-body) front wheel drive mass market vehicles were phased into production signaling an end to the surviving midsized body-on-frame RWD platform dating back to 1964. GM's facelift of its B-platform vehicles in late 1990 (starting with the Chevrolet Caprice) resulted in the fusion of its then-9C1 police package repurposed into the short-lived 1994-96 Impala SS, using the LT1 engine from the Camaro and Corvette using cast iron heads.
At the time of the revival of the Impala SS, sport utility vehicles were outselling passenger cars (from full sized body-on-frame passenger sedans to mass market vehicles) and GM phased out its B platform in late 1996. Ford Motor Company tested the waters by selling its version of the Mercury Grand Marquis (Mercury Marauder) in 2004, which was a slow seller. Like the Impala SS a decade earlier, the Marauder used the Crown Victoria Police Interceptor with a few body modifications fitted with 5-spoke alloy wheels.
In 2004, the Pontiac GTO was relaunched in the United States, a re-badged third generation Holden Monaro (considered as a captive import), and Chrysler debuted the 300C as a 2005 model. In 2005, Ford introduced the 'new' Mustang, designed to resemble the original 1965 2+2 ("fastback") model, it brought back the aggressive lines and colors of the original. In 2008, Chrysler re-introduced the Dodge Challenger, which features design links to the 1970 model.
"We haven’t seen this kind of spontaneous, passionate response to a car since we unveiled the Dodge Viper concept in 1989," CEO Tom LaSorda said, "but it's easy to see what people like about the Dodge Challenger. It's bold, powerful and capable. It's a modern take on one of the most iconic muscle cars and sets a new standard for pure pony car." A year later, running on that same sentiment, Chevrolet released the new designed 2009 Camaro, which bears some resemblance to the 1969 model.
The blend between old and new has fueled the muscle car revival. The mid-1960s muscle car era came to define what baby-boom men would expect from their automobiles. While the aging baby boom generation inspired the modern demand for classic-type American Muscle cars, the consumer market is much more diverse than it was in the 1960s and 1970s. Looking at modern muscle as a social trend, Ford and GM are the "innovators," followed by baby boom males in their 50s as "early adopters.
" The big bulge or "early majority" in the modern muscle movement comes from the men in their teens and early 20s. For these non-baby boomer consumers, the "cool" image is key. In the 1960s "a car was not quite a car unless punching the accelerator resulted in screaming tires and the landscape blurring around you…" according to Brent Staples of The New York Times. Fuel was cheap and the staple of drag racing counterculture was to be fast and loud.
Now being “cool,” fuel efficient, and cost effective is all a part of the package. Instead of fuel guzzling V8 engines, you see V6 or turbocharged I4 models. Despite the reduction in power, Detroit is successfully selling this package. The Camaro and Challenger saw a 13% and 11% spike in sales during June 2011, which "outpaced" the growth in sales of all other passenger cars, according to Autodata.
 Australia Ford Australia and Holden are currently producing high-performance vehicles. For instance, Holden has its SS and SSV Commodores and Utilities, and HSV has more powerful Holden-based versions and has produced a limited edition HSV W427 – a Commodore fitted with the seven litre LS7 V8 from the C6 Corvette Z06 from 2008–2009. As of 2017, the Holden Commodore was discontinued as Holden prepares to close its doors in Australia.
Ford Performance Vehicles produces enhanced versions of the Ford Falcon under the FPV name. As of 2012, current models include supercharged V8 powered GS sedan and utility, supercharged V8 powered GT sedans, and turbocharged inline 6 cylinder F6 sedans and utility. As of 2016, the Ford Falcon was discontinued, and replaced with the 6th generation Ford Mustang. Holden Special Vehicles currently produces high-performance versions of various rear-drive Holden Commodore sedans.
The HSV Clubsport R8 LSA currently has a 400 kW (536 hp) V8 engine and the HSV GTS a 430 kW (577 hp) V8 engine, with a 0 to 100 km/h time of 4.4 seconds. Vauxhall introduced the Monaro to the UK in 2004. This was a re-badged Holden Monaro fitted with a 5.7 L Chevrolet Corvette engine, or in VXR form with the engine bored out to 6.0 L. Sales were low and the model was withdrawn from the Vauxhall range in 2007.
Collectibility The original "tire-burning" cars, such as the Chevrolet Camaro, AMC Machine, Buick Gran Sport, Dodge Charger R/T, Ford Mustang, Oldsmobile 4-4-2, Plymouth GTX, and Pontiac GTO, are "collector's items for classic car lovers". Reproduction sheet metal parts and, in some cases, even complete body shells are available for purchase. List of muscle cars United States Motor Trend identified the following models as "muscle cars" in 1965: 1962–1965 Dodge Dart 413/426 Max Wedge/426 Hemi 1962–1965 Plymouth Fury 413/426 Max Wedge/426 Hemi 1964–1965 Ford Thunderbolt 427 1965 Buick Skylark GSX/GS400/GS 1965 Dodge Coronet 426-S 1965 Plymouth Belvedere 426-S 1965 Chevrolet Malibu SS 1965 Oldsmobile Cutlass 442 Road & Track identified the following models as "musclecars" in 1965: 1964–1965 Pontiac Tempest 1964–1965 Pontiac Le Mans 1964–1965 Pontiac GTO 1965–1975 Buick Riviera Gran Sport 1965–1969 Buick Skylark Gran Sport 1965–1970 Dodge Coronet 426-S 1965–1970 Plymouth Belvedere 426-S 1965 Chevrolet Malibu SS 1965–1967 Oldsmobile Cutlass 442 Car and Driver also created a list of the 10 Best muscle cars for its January 1990 issue.
The magazine focused on the engines and included: 1966–1971 Plymouth/Dodge intermediates with 426 Hemi 1966–1967 Chevy II SS327 1966–1969 Chevrolet Chevelle SS396 1968–1969 Chevy II Nova SS396 1969 Ford Torino Cobra 428 1969 Plymouth Road Runner 440 Six Pack 1969 Dodge Super Bee 440 Six Pack 1970 Chevrolet Chevelle SS454 1969 Pontiac GTO 1984–1987 Buick Grand National 1970–1987 Chevrolet Monte Carlo SS Other muscle cars include the following: Full-size muscle models 1939-1942 Buick Century 1965–1970 Buick Wildcat 1966–1973 Buick Riviera GS & GS Stage One 1965–1974 Chevrolet Impala SS & Custom Coupe 1965–1974 Chevrolet Bel Air along with Chevrolet Biscayne and Chevrolet Caprice 1965–1971 Chrysler 300 non-letter series 1965–1973 Dodge Polara Super-Lite 1965–1974 Ford Galaxie 1966–1967 Mercury S-55 1969–1970 Mercury Marauder 1965–1966 Oldsmobile Starfire 1964–1965 Oldsmobile Jetstar I 1969–1974 Plymouth Fury GT 1966–1969 Pontiac Ventura 1964–1972 Pontiac Grand Prix SJ Mid-size muscle models 1967–1970 AMC Rebel 1970 AMC Rebel Machine 1971 AMC Matador Machine  1965–1972 Buick Skylark Grand Sport & Buick GSX 1965–1973 Chevrolet Chevelle SS 1966–1974 Dodge Charger 500, R/T & SE 1968–1971 Dodge Super Bee 1969 Dodge Charger Daytona 1966–1969 Ford Fairlane GT, GTA & Cobra 1968–1974 Ford Torino GT, Cobra & Talladega 1966–1972 Mercury Cyclone GT, Cobra Jet & Spoiler II 1968–1973 Mercury Montego GT & MX Broughan 1968–1972 Oldsmobile 4-4-2 1968–1972 Oldsmobile Cutlass SX, Supreme & Hurst/Olds 1967–1971 Plymouth GTX 1968–1975 Plymouth Road Runner 1970 Plymouth Superbird 1964–1973 Pontiac GTO 1968–1970 Pontiac Tempest GT-37 1973–1975 Pontiac Grand Am Compact muscle models 1969 AMC SC/Rambler 1971 AMC Hornet SC 360 1972–1976 AMC Gremlin V8 1966–1974 Chevrolet Nova SS 1967–1976 Dodge Dart GT, GTS, Swinger & Demon 1970–1976 Plymouth Duster Gold Duster & Twister 1966–1979 Ford Falcon Sports Coupe 1970–1975 Ford Maverick Grabber 1971–1975 Mercury Comet GT 1973–1974 Oldsmobile Omega S 1973–1974 Buick Apollo GSX 1974 Pontiac GTO 1966-1969 Rambler Rogue V8 Pony car muscle models 1968–1970 AMC AMX 1968–1974 AMC Javelin SST 1967–1974 Chevrolet Camaro RS, Z/28 & SS 1967–1969 Yenko Camaro 427 1969–1974 Dodge Challenger SE, R/T & T/A 1964–1973 Ford Mustang Mach 1, Boss 429, Boss 302 & Boss 351 1965–1970 Shelby Mustang GT350 & GT500 1967–1973 Mercury Cougar GT, XR-7 & Eliminator 1967–1974 Plymouth Barracuda BP, BS & 'Cuda 1967–1981 Pontiac Firebird Trans Am Muscle trucks 1966–1975 Chevrolet El Camino SS 1967–1976 Ford Ranchero GT 1971–1975 GMC Sprint SP 1978–1979 Dodge D Series Li'l Red Express Australia Chrysler VH model 1971–1972 Charger R/T E37 (101 built) 1971–1972 Charger R/T E38 (280 bhp (210 kW))—3 Speed Gearbox (Track pack and Big tank were options and a fully blueprinted engine) (316 built) 1972–1973 Charger R/T E48 (two built) 1972–1973 Charger R/T E49 (302 bhp (225 kW))—4 Speed Gearbox (Track pack and Big tank were options and a fully blueprinted engine) (149 built) 1972–1973 Charger S/E E55 (275 bhp (205 kW))—727 Torqueflite Auto (340 cubic inch Chrysler LA engine) (124 built) 1969–1971 Valiant Hardtop (318 or 360ci V8s) VJ model (R/T nomenclature dropped) were: 1973–1974 Charger E48 (169 built) 1973 Charger E49 (4 built) 1973–1974 Charger 770 E55 (212 built) Ford 1967–1976 Ford Falcon GT 1978 Ford Falcon Cobra Holden 1968–1977 Holden Monaro 1974–1978 Holden Torana Leyland P76 "Force Seven".
This was a coupe version of the Leyland P76, and the company's answer to the Holden Monaro GTS, Ford Falcon GT and Chrysler Valiant Charger. The company ran into financial difficulties and ceased Australian production before the 3-door Force Seven could be released. The eight completed examples were sold at auction. Brazil Chevrolet 1971–1975 1st generation Opala SS with engine 250 I6 1975–1979 2nd generation Opala SS with engine 250-S I6 1979–1980 3rd generation Opala SS with engine 250-S I6 1976–1979 1st generation Caravan SS 1980 2nd generation Caravan SS Ford 1971–1975 1st generation Maverick GT 302 V8 1975–1979 2nd generation Maverick GT 302 V8 1966–1971 Galaxie 500 289 V8 1971–1980 LTD Landau 302 V8 1980–1983 Landau 302 V8 Dodge 1969–1975 Dart 318 V8 1971–1979 1st generation Charger R/T 318 V8 (1969 Dart modified sold under the name of Charger) 1980 2nd generation Charger R/T 318 V8 (1976 Dart modified sold under the name of Charger) Puma 1975–1979 GTB S1 1980–1988 GTB S2 1988–1994 AMV Santa-Matilde 1979–1988 SM4.
1 Argentina General Motors (Argentina) 1972–1977 Chevrolet Chevy Coupé "Super Sport" Serie 2 (230–250 cid I6) 1967–1974 Chevrolet 400 "Super Sport" (230–250 cid I6) 1970–1974 Chevrolet 400 "Rally Sport" (194 cid, only on the 1970-1972 series, 250 cid from 1972-1974 series, both I6) Ford Motor Argentina 1973–1981/82 Ford Falcon "Sprint" (221 cid "SP" [heavily modified high performance version of the Australian engine], 3.
6 L, 166HP, I6) 2016–Present Ford Mustang "GT", (302 cid "Coyote" 5.0 L, 421HP, V8) Chrysler-Fevre Argentina S.A. 1970–1979 Dodge "GTX" (225 cid Slant six "RG" 3.7 L, 155HP, I6 -only on the 1970-1972 series-, and the 1972–1979 series were equipped with the 318 cid "Chrysler LA" engine, 5.2 L, 212–230HP, V8) 1974–1979 Dodge Polara "R/T" (225 cid Slant six "R/T" [High performance optional pack of the standard Polara Coupé] 3.
7 L, 174HP, I6) IKA-Renault (Industrias Kaiser Argentina) 1966–1970 Torino "380 Coupé" (380 cid, 3.8 L "Tornado Interceptor 230", 160HP, I6) 1966–1970 Torino "380w" (380 cid, 3.8 L "Tornado Interceptor 230" w/ 3 Weber 45 carburetors, 176HP, I6) 1970–1976 Torino "GS200" (380 cid, 3.8 L "Tornado Interceptor 230", only on the 1970–1973 series, 3.8 L "Tornado 233" w/ 7 caucuses on the 1973–1976 series, 215HP, both I6) See also Sport compact Pony car Personal luxury car Hot rod Dragster References ^ Koch, Jeff (1 October 2004).
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Stack Exchange. Retrieved 21 May 2016. ^ Mueller, Mike (1997). Motor City Muscle: The High-Powered History of the American Muscle Car. MBI Publishing. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-7603-0196-8. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ a b Auto editors ofConsumer Guide (16 January 2007). "The Birth of Muscle Cars". musclecars.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ Nerad, Jack. "Oldsmobile Rocket 88". Driving Today.
Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ Dulcich, Steve (August 2007). "Rocket Man". Popular Hot Rodding. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ "Chrysler 300 History". Edmunds.com. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ Auto editors of Consumer Guide (22 August 2007). "1957-1960 Rambler Rebel". auto.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ a b Truesdell, Richard. "John Goergen's 1966 343 prototype (sidebar)" (PDF). Musclecar Enthusiast: 59.
Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ a b Auto editors of Consumer Guide (20 December 2006). "AMC Muscle Cars". auto.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ Stephens, Bill (25 March 2012). "How About Some Love for the AMX". Velocity by Discovery. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ Shaw, Tom (December 2005). "Anatomy of a Lightweight". Legendary Ford. ^ a b c d Auto editors of Consumer Guide (30 November 2007).
"Ford Thunderbolt". musclecars.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ a b Holder, Bill; Kunz, Phil (2006). Extreme Muscle Cars: The Factory Lightweight Legacy. Krause Publications. ISBN 978-0-89689-278-1. ^ Gunnell, John (2005). American Cars of the 1960s: A Decade of Diversity. Krause Publications. ISBN 978-0-89689-131-9. ^ "Chevrolet's 1963 Z-11 Impala". 348-409.com. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
^ Auto editors of Consumer Guide (5 January 2007). "1966 Plymouth Satellite 426 Hemi". musclecars.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ a b c Auto editors of Consumer Guide (11 January 2007). "1969 Chevrolet Chevelle COPO 427". musclecars.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ Auto editors of Consumer Guide (10 January 2007). "1970 Chevrolet Chevelle SS 454". musclecars.howstuffworks.
com. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ a b Car Life January 1969. ^ Auto editors of Consumer Guide (9 January 2007). "1968 Plymouth GTX". musclecars.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ a b c Auto editors ofConsumer Guide (10 January 2007). "1970 Plymouth Duster 340". musclecars.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ a b Kelly, Steve (March 1970). "A new entry: DUSTER". Hot Rod. ^ Genat, Robert; Newhardt, David; Gale, Tom (2006).
Mopar Muscle: Fifty Years: Doge, Plymouth & Chrysler Performance. MBI Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7603-2679-4. ^ Cheetham, Craig (2007). Ultimate Muscle Cars. MBI Publishing. pp. 12–15. ISBN 978-0-7603-2834-7. ^ a b Auto editors ofConsumer Guide (12 January 2007). "1970 AMC Rebel Machine". musclecars.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ Kunz, Bruce (14 December 2007). "1970 AMC Rebel".
St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Archived from the original on 5 March 2008. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ Nerad, Jack. "American Motors Rebel Machine". Driving Today. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ Stunkard, Geoff (December 2007). "Welcome To The Machine". Mopar Muscle. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ Sanders, Bill (February 1969). "Road Runner". Motor Trend. ^ Auto editors of Consumer Guide (8 January 2007). "1968 Dodge Super Bee".
musclecars.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ Kelly, Steve (December 1968). "Barracuda on the Line". Hot Rod. ^ Yates, Brock W. (1983). The decline and fall of the American automobile industry. Empire Books. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-88015-004-0. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ Bailey, Katharine (2006). Muscle Cars. Crabtree Publishing. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-7787-3010-1. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
^ Nichols, Mel. "HO down the Hume". falcongt.com.au. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ "The Ultimate Muscle Car: Enter the Ford Falcon XA GT-HO Phase 4". smartbeard.com. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ Wright, John (1987). "The Final Finest Phase" (PDF). Super Ford's: 20–27. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ quickest HDT according to Modern Motor Magazine, January 1983 ^ Strohl, Daniel (2 July 2006).
"Challenger headed to production". Hemmings Muscle Machines. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ Staples, Brent (1 September 2002). "Resisting the Siren Song of the All-American Muscle Cars". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ Gladwell, Malcolm (17 March 1997). "The Coolhunt". The New Yorker: 12. ^ White, Joseph B. (6 June 2011). "Muscle Cars, No Midlife Crisis Required". The Wall Street Journal.
Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ Zuehlke, Jeffrey (2007). Classic Cars. Lerner Publications. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-8225-5926-9. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ Stakes, Eddie. "Matador Machine: 1971 from American Motors". planethoustonamx. Retrieved 18 January 2016. ^ Moriarty, Frank (1995). Supercars: The Story of the Dodge Charger Daytona and Plymouth Superbird. Howell Press. ISBN 978-1-57427-043-3. ^ "The legendary Plymouth Road Runner and Dodge Super Bee".
www.allpar.com. Retrieved 19 January 2018. ^ Severson, Aaron (27 October 2008). "Beep Beep: The Irreverent Plymouth Road Runner". Ate Up With Motor. Retrieved 19 January 2018. ^ Stone, Matt; Matras, John (2006). 365 Cars You Must Drive. Motorbooks. p. 18. ISBN 9780760324141. Retrieved 3 December 2016. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Muscle cars. Muscle Cars at Curlie (based on DMOZ) v t e Car design Car classification By size Microcar City car Kei Subcompact Supermini Family car Compact Mid-size Full-size Custom Hot rod Lead sled Lowrider Street rod T-bucket Luxury Compact executive Executive Personal luxury car Minivan / Multi-purpose vehicle (MPV) Compact MPV Mini MPV Sport utility vehicle (SUV) Compact SUV Crossover SUV Mini SUV Sports car Grand tourer Hot hatch Muscle Pony Sport compact Supercar Antique Classic Economy Leisure activity vehicle Ute Van Voiturette Body styles 2+2 Baquet Barchetta Berlinetta Brougham Cabrio coach Cabriolet / Convertible Coupé Coupé de Ville Coupé utility Drophead coupe (Convertible) Fastback Hardtop Hatchback Landaulet Liftback Limousine Multi-stop truck Notchback Panel van Phaeton Pickup truck Quad coupé Retractable hardtop Roadster Runabout Saloon / Sedan Sedan delivery Sedanca de Ville (Coupé de Ville) Shooting-brake Spider / Spyder (Roadster) Station wagon Targa top Torpedo Touring car Town car (Coupé de Ville) T-top Vis-à-vis Specialized vehicles Amphibious Driverless (autonomous) Hearse Gyrocar Roadable aircraft Taxicab Tow truck Propulsion Alternative fuel Autogas Biodiesel Diesel Electric (battery NEV) Ethanol (E85) Fuel cell Gasoline / petrol (direct injection) Homogeneous charge compression ignition Hybrid (plug-in) Hydrogen Internal combustion Liquid nitrogen Steam Drive wheels Front-wheel Rear-wheel Two-wheel Four-wheel Six-wheel Eight-wheel Twelve-wheel Engine position Front Mid Rear Layout (engine / drive) Front / front Front mid / front Rear / front Front / rear Rear mid / rear Rear / rear Front / four-wheel Mid / four-wheel Rear / four-wheel Engine configuration(internal combustion) Boxer Flat Four-stroke H-block Reciprocating Single-cylinder Straight Two-stroke V (Vee) W engine Wankel Portal Category v t e American Muscle Cars Motor Trend (1964) 1962–1965 Dodge Dart / Plymouth Fury 413/426 Max Wedge/426 Hemi 1964–1965 Ford Thunderbolt 427 1965–1969 Buick Skylark Gran Sport 1965–1970 Dodge Coronet/Plymouth Belvedere 426-S 1965 Chevrolet Chevelle Malibu SS 1965–1967 Oldsmobile Cutlass 442 Road & Track (1965) 1964–1965 Pontiac Tempest Le Mans/GTO 1965–1975 Buick Riviera Gran Sport 1965–1969 Buick Skylark Gran Sport 1965–1970 Dodge Coronet/Plymouth Belvedere 426-S 1965 Chevrolet Chevelle Malibu SS 1965–1967 Oldsmobile 442 Car and Driver (1990) 1966–1967 Plymouth/Dodge intermediates with 426 Hemi 1968–1969 Plymouth/Dodge intermediates with 426 Hemi 1970–1971 Plymouth/Dodge intermediates with 426 Hemi 1966–1967 Chevy II SS327 1966–1969 Chevrolet Chevelle SS396 1968–1969 Chevy II Nova SS396 1969 Ford Torino Cobra 428 1969 Plymouth Road Runner/Dodge Super Bee 440 Six Pack 1970 Chevrolet Chevelle SS454 1969 Pontiac GTO Mid-Size 1970–1971 AMC Rebel and Matador The Machine 1970–1974 Buick GSX 1965–1973 Chevrolet Chevelle SS 1966–1974 Dodge Charger 1968–1971 Dodge Super Bee 1969–1970 Dodge Charger Daytona 1966–1969 Ford Fairlane GT, GTA, and Cobra 1968–1974 Ford Torino (GT, Cobra, and Talladega) 1966–1972 Mercury Cyclone 1970–1971 Mercury Montego 1968–1971 Oldsmobile 442 1969 Oldsmobile Cutlass "Ram-Rod" 350 1970 Oldsmobile Cutlass W-31 1967–1971 Plymouth GTX 1968–1974 Plymouth Road Runner 1970 Plymouth Superbird 1964–1974 Pontiac GTO Sport compact 1969 AMC SC/Rambler 1971 AMC Hornet SC 360 1963–1974 Chevrolet Nova SS 1968–1976 Dodge Dart GT, GTS, Swinger, and Demon 1970–1976 Plymouth Duster Pony car 1968–1970 AMC AMX 1968–1974 AMC Javelin and AMX 1967–1974 Chevrolet Camaro SS, Z-28 1970–1974 Dodge Challenger 1965–1969 Shelby Mustang GT350 & GT500 1968–1971 Mustang Cobra Jet 1969–1973 Mustang Mach 1 1969–1970 Boss 302 Mustang 1969–1970 Mustang Boss 429 1971 Mustang Boss 351 1969–1970 Mercury Cougar Eliminator 1964–1974 Plymouth Barracuda aka 'Cuda 1967–1979 Pontiac Firebird Trans Am Retrieved from "https://en.
wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Muscle_car&oldid=825847133"See Also: Kings Appliances Evansville In
An equipment is among the most important investments you are going to at any time make. Appliances are constantly hefty buys, and therefore are a person in the primary portions of your house. You rely upon appliances for almost everything from cooking to cleaning, and particularly contemplating the amount of cash you might be putting forth for it, it only is smart that you d need to ensure that you make the most sensible acquire.
Household appliances can be a term and that is utilized incredibly popularly right now but what does it stand for? Home appliances stand to the mechanical and electrical products that are applied in your own home for your working of a normal home.
America's love affair with the automobile. America's love affair with the automobile began during the first few decades of the 20th century. Between 1918 and 1941 our way of life changed. Henry Ford's V-8 engine in a light body created one of the quickest, liveliest cars on the road in 1932. It was the first American "performance" car of its day. Gradually more and more people began to depend on their cars to meet more and more of their needs in daily life.
Once World War I ended, car manufacturers fiercely competed with each other to lure new customers by creating cars with sleek lines and stylish features. But there was something missing. There was No Zip, No Zooooom, and definitely No Pizzazz! That is, until 1949 when the fine folks at Oldsmobile put an innovative and powerful new engine; America's first high-compression overhead valve V8. It was a 303 cubic inch powerhouse that was placed the 1949 Rocket 88 and it delivered an impressive 135 horse power.
The only car in the world that came close to it at that time was the Hudson Hornet. Steve Dulcich, writing in Popular Hot Rodding, also cites Oldsmobile, concurrently with Cadillac, as having "launched the modern era of the high-performance V-8 with the introduction of the "Rocket 88" overhead-valve V-8 in 1949." That's all it took to be performance kings back then and it created a sensation. Times were a changin and the public had an interest in more speed and more power and that's just what Oldsmobile had delivered.
Historians and opinions differ but many believe that this car was the first of the new species. It was a new breed of high performance cars. The dam had been broken and the flood was soon to follow. High performance cars have always been special machines. And nothing short of legendary results took place when the Wizards of the automotive industry combined large engines and light weight bodies; these two ingredients created MAGIC! Grass grows at a faster pace than the improvement of performance the cars did over the next decade.
Six years later a new king of performance was crowned with the classic 1955 Chrysler C-300. This was a large car but it had more than doubled the horsepower of the Rocket 88 with a heart pounding 300 horse power Hemi engine. It was the most powerful American car manufactured at that time. The Hemi engine could propel this luxury car from zero to sixty in 9.8 seconds with at top speed of 130 miles per hour.
This was HUGE performance for its day, but couldn't hold a candle to what was coming in the next decade. The 1960's is the decade considered to be the golden age of the muscle car. Drag racers had some toys to play with at the start of the decade. A compact Dodge Dart was fitted with a 413ci Max Wedge engine and it promptly started dominating everything on the strip. Ford created the Thunderbolt from a stripped down Ford Fairlane.
This car had fiberglass body boards and lack threw out almost all of the comfort features. It was a scorcher. It ran the Quarter Mile in less than twelve seconds. Ford made 200 units of a stripped down version of the Galaxies with a 427 cubic inch engine. This was the same engine powering the Thunderbolt. These were very limited production models and only a few were sold. The only "muscle car" offered to the masses during the early part of the decade was the Impala Super Sport with a 409ci engine.
The birth of an era! The flood gates open! In 1964, John De Lorean and Russell Gee, two performance car enthusiasts working at GM's Pontiac Division envisioned and created the Pontiac GTO. This is the car that is considered by most historians to be the first factory produced Muscle Car. This was the first classic muscle car. It was an intermediate sized car and it came with a 389ci engine. Performance was very acceptable with 0-60 time of 7.
7 seconds and a ¼ mile time of 15.8 seconds, but performance was not the only aspect that carried this car. It was a triple threat. Yes it had acceptable performance but it also had... Style; it looked great and another important factor was that the price was right! Performance, Style and Price would be the three big factors that would shape the legendary cars that came next from this era. The GTO spawned what was to become a new fever; it created a new frenzy .
.. Muscle Car Madness: The true definition of a muscle car is a little fuzzy but it basically comes down to BIG engines stuffed lightweight auto bodies with higher performance rear ends, transmissions and suspensions. Automotive trends in the early-mid 1960s had all the U.S. manufacturers looking at making sporty compact cars. Chrysler's A-body Plymouth Valiant was chosen for the company's effort in this direction and on April 1, 1964 the Barracuda was introduced, making it the first pony car produced but its reign was short lived.
Just two weeks later another legend was to come along. This car was introduced to the public on April 17, 1964 and with it, Ford hit the ball out of the ball park. The 1964 Mustang was born. The first model was called the 1964 ½ due to the short model year. The 1964 car was available in a coup and a convertible. The early engine choices included a 170 cu in/ 101 HP/ 6 cylinder, a 260 cu in / 164 HP / V-8, and a 289/ 210 HP/ V8.
By June of 1964, Ford released a super fast version of the Mustang with a 289 cu in V8 with a four barrel carburetor and a solid lift cam which pushed the power up to 271 HP. Lee Iacocca and chief engineer, Donald N. Frey The Mustang is the only original pony car to remain in uninterrupted production for over four decades of development and revision and it changed the face of Muscle Cars. It proudly proclaimed that good performance, good looks and affordable prices sold cars; lots of cars.
General Motors, not to be out done quickly, scrambled up to speed and introduced the Chevelle Super Sport, the Buick Gran Sport and the Oldsmobile 442 to its stable of muscle cars. Meanwhile the designers over at Mopar began stuffing HEMI engines and other big blocks into everything they could. The legendary Chargers, Coronets and GTXs were produced. The HEMI and 440ci big blocks became the terrors on the streets.
Ford countered with supped up versions of the Fairlane and Galaxies for those wanting something larger than pony cars. Fords competition raced furiously to compete with the Mustang. GM introduced legendary vehicles called Camaro and Firebird. A year later AMX introduced the AMX and the Javelin. It took Chrysler until 1970 to enter the pony market with the Challenger and a new designed Barracuda. It was a fabulous decade and by the end of the decade there were performance models that could appeal to almost anyone and anyone with a down payment could happily burn as much rubber as they could afford to burn on the weekends.
With cheap gas it truly was the golden age of the Muscle Car. The 70's decade began with high hopes or even more incredible Muscle Cars only these hopes were quickly dashed because the world changed almost over night. We can thank the Middle East OPEC nations for the higher gas prices and shortages of the early 70's and insurance companies that started raising rates faster then they could print the new forms.
From 1971 the US government enforced new anti-pollution regulations, which saw compression ratios and power figures plummet as manufacturers were forced to convert their engines to run on nasty low- or non-leaded fuel. In 1973, the new frontal crush zone regulations were introduced. Manufacturers had to scramble to cobble the ugly, bulbous plastic noses to the fronts of their existing cars. In just three short years, the muscle car industry had been reduced from a frenzy of excitement and wonder, color and power to goofy, cruise ship-like wheezing hiss-boxes (the "p" respectfully changed to "h"), that had oceans of front and rear overhang and almost zero street-credibility.
While it lasted, the muscle car era produced some of the most memorable vehicles produced at any point in US history! By 1974, all of the original muscle cars were just pale comparisons of their original selves. Performance was no longer a consideration. The automobiles fuel economy was the force behind automotive sales and not tire burning performance. The Barracuda and the Challenger were discontinued, the mustang crippled and the Chargers and the Chevelles migrated to mid-priced luxury cars.
The Firebird and Camaro were still marketed but as vehicles with more looks than brawny performance. In 1979 Ford reintroduced the as a performance model. There was some excitement and in 1982 a new Camaro and Firebird were rolled out. Then, in 1984 Chevrolet introduced a new Corvette. Buick decided to shake things up with the sporty Grand National. By 1987 Buick's Grand National had become one of the meanest muscle cars ever produced.
Performance was back in a big way. Muscle cars continued to improve as the years progressed to the turn of the century. These cars outshined their classic brothers in every aspect; performance, fuel consumption, options, style, comfort, reliability were all better. Did anyone take notice? The automotive industry was relying on the same formula performance, looks, and price but no one was interested.
Gas was still a factor. The newer generation of drivers in the late 90's was not as hip to performance as the generation of the 60's. Sales were not there. In 2002, GM stopped production of the Camaro and Firebird Back with another redesign in 2005 Ford released the Mustang and for the third time, the Mustang changed the automotive landscape. People loved the retro look and again sales went through the roof.
Is the muscle car back? We'll have to wait and see. If you like the classic muscle cars, Muscle Car Ranch is the place to be.