Historically, there has been disagreement regarding the chronology of events at the first Passover. Today, most of the Sabbath-keeping Churches of God believe that the Israelites slew the Passover lamb in Egypt after sunset on 14 Abib. The common teaching is that they ate the Passover meal on the night of the 14th, and that the destroyer killed the Egyptian firstborn later that night about midnight.
This article will show that the Israelites slew the Passover on the afternoon of 14 Abib, and then ate the Passover meal on the night of 15 Abib, a few hours before God sent the death angel to kill the Egyptian firstborn. Most Worldwide Church of God offshoots generally accept the Passover scenario adopted by Herbert W. Armstrong (or a slight variation of it). Mr. Armstrong taught that the slaughter of the Passover lambs, the eating of the Passover meal, and the death of the firstborn all occurred after sunset on 14 Abib.
With some minor differences, most who believe this theory propose the following general chronology of events for the Egyptian Passover: The Israelites killed the Passover lambs between sunset and dark, in the early hours of 14 Abib. They roasted the lamb and put the blood on their two doorposts and on the lintel. They ate their Passover meal before midnight, with unleavened bread and bitter herbs.
The death angel passed over at midnight on 14 Abib, killing the firstborn of Egypt. The Israelites remained in their houses until dawn, burning the inedible remains of their Passover lambs before morning. They spoiled the Egyptians of their gold, silver, and clothing during the daylight portion of 14 Abib. The Israelites then departed Rameses by night on 15 Abib, shortly after the sun went down. The belief that the Passover lambs were killed just after sunset, as 14 Abib was beginning, is based on the Hebrew phrase beyn ha'arbayim (בין הערבים): EXODUS 12:6 "And it shall be for you to keep until the fourteenth day of this month.
And all the assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it between the evenings [beyn ha'arbayim]." (A Literal Translation of the Bible) As shown above, beyn ha'arbayim literally means "between the evenings." Most of the Churches of God interpret this phrase as "between sunset and dark." Many translations of the Bible render the Hebrew phrase beyn ha'arbayim as "dusk" or "twilight." Additionally, many modern scholars have construed this Hebrew phrase to mean from sunset to dark.
But is this the correct interpretation of beyn ha'arbayim? The entire argument over the timing of the original Passover rests on the true meaning of beyn ha'arbayim. If "between the evenings" means from sunset to dark, then the eating of the Passover meal and the death of the firstborn would have taken place on the night of 14 Abib. On the other hand, if the Jews have been right in reckoning beyn ha'arbayim as the period from afternoon until sunset, the Israelites would have slain the Passover on the afternoon of 14 Abib.
They would then have eaten the Passover meal on the night of 15 Abib, the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread. The death angel would have killed the firstborn at midnight on the 15th. To fully understand this topic, we have to determine which interpretation of beyn ha'arbayim is correct. How can we prove what God meant by "between the evenings?" Does the Bible itself give us any clues? Exodus 29:38-41 records the instructions God gave Moses regarding the daily sacrifices Israel was commanded to offer.
Let's look at that injunction closely in A Literal Translation of the Bible by Jay Green, which is found beside the Hebrew text in The Interlinear Bible: EXODUS 29:38 "And this is what you shall offer on the altar: two lambs daily, sons of a year; 39 the one lamb you shall offer in the morning, and the second lamb you shall offer between the evenings [beyn ha'arbayim]. 40 And a tenth of fine flour anointed with beaten oil, a fourth of a hin, and a drink offering, a fourth of a hin of wine, for the one lamb.
41 And you shall offer the second lamb between the evenings [beyn ha'arbayim]; you shall do it like the morning food offering and its drink offering, for a soothing fragrance, a fire offering to Jehovah." (A Literal Translation of the Bible) The Israelites reckoned days from sunset to sunset. God makes it clear that Israel was to offer two lambs every day. The first lamb was sacrificed in the morning, and the second lamb was sacrificed "between the evenings.
" To be the second offering of the day, the lamb sacrificed "between the evenings" had to be slain before sunset! If "between the evenings" occurs anytime after sunset, then the Israelites could not have carried out this command in the manner God prescribed. At sunset, the old day has ended and the new day has begun. Defining beyn ha'arbayim as the period from sunset to dark makes the evening sacrifice first and the morning sacrifice second according to the way the Israelites delineated a "day.
" Therefore this definition of "between the evenings" must be rejected because it contradicts the Scriptures! Obviously beyn ha'arbayim must be a period during the daylight portion of the day. The Jews have always reckoned it to be from the decline of the sun after noon until the setting of the sun. Indeed, history shows that at the time of Messiah, the Jewish priests fulfilled God's command by offering the evening sacrifice between 2:30-3:30 in the afternoon.
Jewish scholars generally define the phrase beyn ha'arbayim to mean "the afternoon," as shown below: at twilight Hebrew ben ha-'arbayim literally means "between the two settings." Rabbinic sources take this to mean "from noon on." According to Radak, the first "setting" occurs when the sun passes its zenith just after noon and the shadows begin to lengthen, and the second "setting" is the actual sunset.
(p. 55, vol. 2, The Jewish Publication Society Torah Commentary, "Exodus") At dusk From six hours (after noon) and upward it is called בין הערבים, when the sun declines towards the place of its setting to become darkened. And the expression בין הערבים appears in my sight (to refer to) those hours between the "evening" of day and the "evening" of night; the "evening" of day is at the beginning of the seventh hour, from (the time that) "the shadows of evening are stretched out" (Jer.
7.6), and the "evening" of night is at the beginning of night. (p. 102, vol. II, The Pentateuch and Rashi's Commentary-A Linear Translation Into English) at dusk. Better, towards even (M. Friedlander); lit. 'between the two evenings'. According to the Talmud, the 'first evening' is the time in the afternoon when the heat of the sun begins to decrease, about 3 o'clock; and the 'second evening' commences with sunset.
(p. 254, The Pentateuch and Haftorahs, ed. Dr. Joseph H. Hertz) The Jewish historian Flavius Josephus tells us that in the 1st century, before the destruction of the Temple, the Passover lambs were slaughtered "from the ninth hour till the eleventh" (6.9.3, The Wars of the Jews). This time corresponds to our 3:00-5:00 p.m. Obviously most of the Jews in Yeshua's day understood that "between the evenings" meant from the going down of the sun at noon until the setting of the sun at sunset.
Therefore, they slaughtered the Passover lambs in the afternoon of 14 Abib (then called Nisan). Going back even further, we have the witness of the Book of Jubilees, which dates to the mid-2nd century BCE. Fragments of ten different Hebrew manuscripts of this book have been found in the Qumran caves; however, the text we have comes from four Ethiopian translations, and a sizable fragment translated into Latin.
The Book of Jubilees contains valuable information on how the Jews kept the Passover 200 years before Yeshua: Remember the commandment which the Lord commanded thee concerning the passover, that thou shouldst celebrate it in its season on the fourteenth of the first month, that thou shouldst kill it before it is evening, and that they should eat it by night on the evening of the fifteenth from the time of the setting of the sun.
For on this night - the beginning of the festival and the beginning of the joy - ye were eating the passover in Egypt . . .Let the children of Israel come and observe the passover on the day of its fixed time, on the fourteenth day of the first month, between the evenings, from the third part of the day to the third part of the night, for two portions of the day are given to the light, and a third part to the evening.
This is that which the Lord commanded thee that thou shouldst observe it between the evenings. And it is not permissible to slay it during any period of the light, but during the period bordering on the evening, and let them eat it at the time of the evening, until the third part of the night, and whatever is left over of all its flesh from the third part of the night and onwards, let them burn it with fire .
. . (Jubilees 49:1-2, 10-13, The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, R.H. Charles) To support their beliefs, those who teach that Passover falls totally on 14 Nisan allege that the Jews redefined beyn ha'arbayim to suit their own purposes sometime between Ezra and the appearance of Yeshua the Messiah. In taking this position, they are forced to reject all the available historical evidence and the inspired definition of "between the evenings" found in Exodus 29:38-41.
They admit that the Jews were killing the Passover on the afternoon of 14 Nisan at the time of Yeshua, but they maintain that this practice was incorrect. These people further claim that Yeshua correctly observed Passover according to the Sadducean or Essene method, keeping it a day earlier than the Pharisees and the rest of the Jewish nation. However, no historical testimony exists to confirm these theories.
They are based on the assumption that at the "last supper," Yeshua was following the Sadducean/Samaritan custom of observing the Passover beginning at sunset on 14 Nisan, or that he was following the Essene calendar, which put the Passover meal one day earlier than the mainstream Jewish calendar. These views originated to explain the perceived discrepancies between John's account of the "last supper," which clearly shows that it was before Passover, and the Synoptic versions, which seem to indicate that the "last supper" was the regular Passover meal.
For a detailed discussion of this topic, see "Was The 'Last Supper' The Passover Meal?" As stated earlier, no evidence exists to support these theories. But is there a way to disprove them? Yes, we can refute both from the Bible. It is a simple matter to refute the Essene observance premise. Shortly before his crucifixion, Yeshua told the multitudes and his disciples to follow the commands given by the scribes and Pharisees while they sat on Moses' seat (Matt.
23:1-3). This most certainly would have included the time for observing the feasts, including Passover. If he himself did NOT observe the feast according to Pharisaic reckoning, he would have been as much a hypocrite as those Pharisees he chastised for hypocrisy in the remainder of Matthew 23. Disproving the Sadducean Passover hypothesis from the Bible takes a little more effort. A careful reading of Mark 15:1 in conjunction with John 18:28 shows that the Sadducees also ate the Passover meal on the night of 15 Nisan, at the same time advocated by the Pharisees: MARK 15:1 Immediately, in the morning, the chief priests held a consultation with the elders and scribes and the whole council; and they bound Jesus, led him away, and delivered him to Pilate.
(NKJV) JOHN 18:28 Then they led Jesus from Caiaphas to the Praetorium, and it was early morning. But they themselves did not go into the Praetorium, lest they should be defiled, but that they might eat the Passover. (NKJV) Who were the "chief priests" mentioned in Mark 15:1 who delivered Yeshua to Pilate? The Sadducees are mentioned by name in the NT only about a dozen times . . . but it must be remembered that when mention is made of the chief priests, practically the same persons are referred to.
(p. 741, "Sadducees," The Zondervan Pictorial Bible Dictionary) Mark records that Yeshua was taken before the Sanhedrin council (Mark 15:1). This council included both Pharisees and Sadducees. These were the same men who delivered Messiah to Pilate early on the morning of 14 Nisan. None of those who brought Yeshua to Pilate would enter the Praetorium. Why? John clearly states the reason: They wanted to be ceremonially clean so they could partake of the Passover meal, which was eaten on 15 Nisan after sunset! Even if the Sadducees believed Passover fell totally on 14 Nisan, John shows that they were not observing it then.
If the Sadducees believed that they should eat the Passover meal on the night of 14 Nisan, why didn't they eat it at that time? By the time of Jesus they [the Sadducees] included the families who supplied the high priests, as well as other wealthy aristocrats of Jerusalem. Most members of the Sanhedrin, the central judicial authority of Jewish people, were Sadducees. Thus, the Sadducees were the party of those with political power, those allied with the Herodian and Roman rulers, but they were not a group with influence among the people themselves.
The views of the Pharisees prevailed among the common people, so that even though the two groups differed with regard to items in the laws of purity and details of temple procedure during the feasts, the Sadducean priests were compelled to operate according to the Pharisees' views. (p. 902, "Sadducees," The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary) The Sadducees were politically motivated; they kept the Pharisaic (and scriptural) Passover because they feared a public backlash if they didn't.
Regardless of what the Sadducees personally believed about the timing of the Passover, the Bible shows that they followed the same custom as the rest of the nation. History shows that the Pharisees controlled the Temple rituals at the time of Yeshua. You never find Yeshua criticizing the Jews or the Pharisees for keeping Passover on the wrong day. Indeed, the Bible plainly records that Yeshua and his parents customarily kept the Passover in Jerusalem with the rest of their countrymen (Luke 2:41-42; John 2:23; 11:55-56).
Yeshua corrected the Pharisees on many issues where they were wrong. Would he have neglected to correct them on such a vitally important issue if they were keeping Passover on the wrong day? Not likely! Yet instead of correction, just before the Passover feast we find him telling his disciples and the multitudes that "the scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat. Therefore whatever they tell you to observe, that observe and do .
. ." (Matt. 23:1-3). It's absurd to think that Yeshua would tell the people to follow the Pharisees if they were observing Passover at the wrong time! On the other hand, it's also strange that the scribes and Pharisees never criticized Yeshua or his disciples for keeping the Passover on a different day from them. Would their leaders have overlooked such an obvious point of disagreement when they were seeking a way to discredit and ultimately destroy Yeshua? Probably not.
In this matter, the silence of Scripture is very revealing. We have further evidence from Paul that the 1st-century Jewish interpretation of beyn ha'arbayim is the correct one. In Philippians 3:5-6, Paul describes his Jewish background; he says that he was "concerning the Law, a Pharisee . . . concerning the righteousness which is in the Law, blameless." Paul could not have truthfully said that he was blameless regarding the Law if he had observed the Passover at the wrong time as a Pharisee.
This inspired Scripture indirectly shows that the Pharisaic interpretation of beyn ha'arbayim, which the Jews observed in killing the Passover, was the correct one! From where did the two different interpretations of the phrase beyn ha'arbayim arise? The phrase "between the evenings" in Ex. 12:6 (also Ex. 16:12; Lv. 23:5; Nu. 9:3,5,11) has been accorded two variant interpretations, according to variant community practice - either between 3 p.
m. and sunset, as the Pharisees maintained and practised (cf. Pesahim 61a; Josephus, BJ 6. 423); or, as the Samaritans and others argued, between sunset and dark. The earlier time, as Edersheim points out, allows more leeway for the slaughtering of the innumerable lambs, and is probably preferred. (p. 882, "Passover," New Bible Dictionary) Alfred Edersheim, a noted 19th-century Jewish scholar, has this to say about beyn ha'arbayim: The lamb was to be killed on the eve of the 14th, or rather, as the phrase is, "between the two evenings" (Exod.
12:6, Lev. 23:5; Num. 9:3,5). According to the Samaritans, the Karaite Jews [8th century CE], and many modern interpreters, this means between actual sunset and complete darkness (or, say, between six and seven P.M.); but from the contemporary testimony of Josephus (Jew. Wars, 6.423), and from the Talmudic authorities, there cannot be a doubt that at the time of our Lord, it was regarded as the interval between the sun's commencing to decline and his actual disappearance.
This allows a sufficient period for the numerous lambs which had to be killed, and agrees with the traditional account that on the eve of the Passover the daily evening sacrifice was offered an hour, or, if it fell on a Friday, two hours, before the usual time. (p. 165, The Temple: Its Ministry and Services, updated ed.) We can see that at the time of Messiah, primarily two opinions existed regarding the interpretation of "between the evenings" as it applied to Passover.
The Pharisees taught that the lamb had to be slaughtered on the afternoon of 14 Nisan. The Samaritans believed that they should kill the Passover lamb between sunset and dark, at the beginning of 14 Nisan. Whom should we look to for our interpretation of beyn ha'arbayim, the Samaritans or the Pharisees? Did the Samaritans have the truth regarding this matter? Let's see what Yeshua himself said to a Samaritan woman about the spiritual knowledge and understanding of the Samaritans: JOHN 4:22 "You worship what you do not know; we know what we worship, for salvation is of the Jews.
(NKJV) Messiah Yeshua clearly told the Samaritan woman at the well that the Samaritans did not know what they worshiped. In the same verse, he affirmed that the Jews did know the God they worshiped, because they had the true religion. According to Yeshua, the Pharisees were the successors to Moses. When they expounded on when to keep the feasts of God from the Torah, Yeshua told his disciples and the people to observe the Pharisaic commands.
He never told the people to follow the teachings of the syncretistic Samaritans or the materialistic Sadducees! II Kings 17:22-34 shows the origin of those Samaritans and their illicit religious practices. Just like many Christian denominations today, the Samaritans had a little of the truth mixed with much error. Yeshua confirms in Matthew 23:1-3 that it was the Pharisees, not the Sadducees (or the Essenes), who were the authoritative religious teachers of his day.
When we look at this topic objectively with an open mind, the evidence is overwhelming that beyn ha'arbayim is the period between noon and sunset (for additional discussion of this topic, see "What Does 'Between The Evenings' Mean?"). Therefore, the Israelites must have killed the Passover lambs in Egypt on the afternoon of 14 Abib and then eaten the Passover meal sometime on the night of 15 Abib before midnight.
This time sequence will become more obvious as we examine the rest of the Exodus chronology. Now let's look at how God told the Israelites to eat the Passover: EXODUS 12:8 "That same night they are to eat the meat roasted over the fire, along with bitter herbs, and bread made without yeast. 9 Do not eat the meat raw or cooked in water, but roast it over the fire—head, legs and inner parts. 10 Do not leave any of it till morning; if some is left till morning, you must burn it.
11 This is how you are to eat it: with your cloak tucked into your belt, your sandals on your feet and your staff in your hand. Eat it in haste; it is the LORD's Passover. 12 On that same night I will pass through Egypt and strike down every firstborn—both men and animals—and I will bring judgment on all the gods of Egypt. I am the LORD." (NIV) Those who believe in a Passover falling totally on 14 Abib have trouble explaining why God instructed the Israelites to eat the Passover in haste.
As you can see from this passage, they were to have their belongings packed and be dressed and ready to move out quickly. Yet, there was no need for them to eat the Passover in haste, with their belts and sandals on and their staffs in their hands, if they were not going to leave Egypt until almost a full day later, on the night of 15 Abib. So why did God give them these explicit instructions? Is it because He truly intended for them to leave soon after the death of the firstborn? Yes! Additionally, those who believe that the death angel passed through Egypt on the night of 14 Abib make a major issue of the Israelites not leaving their houses until dawn.
They contend that per Moses' instruction found in Exodus 12:22, none of them dared venture out of their homes until morning, because to do otherwise would have meant coming out from under the protection of the lambs' blood! But do the Scriptures teach this? EXODUS 12:13 Now the blood shall be a sign for you on the houses where you are. And when I see the blood, I will pass over you; and the plague shall not be on you to destroy you when I strike the land of Egypt.
(NKJV) When the death angel went through the land, he looked for the blood on the lintel and the two doorposts of the houses. When he saw it, he passed over that house! In Exodus 12:13, the phrase "when I strike" implies a definite time. When did the Destroyer strike? EXODUS 12:29 And it came to pass at midnight that the LORD struck all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of livestock.
(NKJV) The Scriptures show that the death angel killed the firstborn at midnight. Once the Destroyer had gone through Egypt, the 10th plague was over. It does not appear that there was any danger to the Israelite firstborn after the death angel had passed through the land. Now what does the Bible show happening after the death of the firstborn? EXODUS 12:30 So Pharaoh rose in the night, he, all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was not a house where there was not one dead.
31 Then he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, "Rise, go out from among my people, both you and the children of Israel. And go, serve the LORD as you have said. 32 Also take your flocks and your herds, as you have said, and be gone; and bless me also." 33 And the Egyptians urged the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste. For they said, "We shall all be dead.
" (NKJV) The Scriptures clearly record that Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron that night, soon after the death of the firstborn. Although some try to make the case that Moses and Aaron ignored Pharaoh's summons, the text strongly suggests that they appeared before him. Pharaoh commanded Moses to take the Israelites out of the country, and he also asked Moses to bless him before he left. All the Egyptian people, who rose that night after the last plague, urged the people to leave in haste! They feared that they would also be killed if the Israelites remained in their land a moment longer.
So what happened next? Did the Israelites ignore the order of Pharaoh and the pleas of the surviving Egyptians and spend the entire next day gathering gold, silver, and clothing from the grieving Egyptians as they prepared to bury their dead? Not according to the Bible! EXODUS 12:34 So the people took their dough before it was leavened, having their kneading bowls bound up in their clothes on their shoulders.
35 Now the children of Israel had done according to the word of Moses, and they had asked from the Egyptians articles of silver, articles of gold, and clothing. 36 And the LORD had given the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they granted them what they requested. Thus they plundered the Egyptians. 37 Then the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides children.
38 A mixed multitude went up with them also, and flocks and herds; a great deal of livestock. 39 And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they had brought out of Egypt; for it was not leavened, because they were driven out of Egypt and could not wait, nor had they prepared provisions for themselves. (NKJV) The Scriptures clearly show that the Israelites left hurriedly! Not only did Pharaoh and the Egyptians urge them to leave, the Bible says they actually drove the Israelites out of Egypt, just as God had foretold (Exo.
11:1). They were forced to leave without having had time to prepare any food for their journey. Following God's instructions, they were dressed, packed, and ready to go quickly. They did not even have time to unpack their kneading bowls and prepare bread before the Egyptians expelled them! If we look at when the command to spoil the Egyptians was given, we can also see when it was likely carried out: EXODUS 11:1 And the LORD said to Moses, "I will bring yet one more plague on Pharaoh and on Egypt.
Afterward he will let you go from here. When he lets you go, he will surely drive you out of here altogether. 2 Speak now in the hearing of the people, and let every man ask from his neighbor and every woman from her neighbor, articles of silver and articles of gold." 3 And the LORD gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharaoh's servants and in the sight of the people.
(NKJV) From the statement in Exodus 11:3 that "YHVH gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians," it's evident that the plundering occurred before the 10th plague took place. It had already happened before the Egyptians expelled the Israelites. That's why in many translations of the Bible, the account of the plundering detailed in Exodus 12:35-36 is in the past tense ("had done," "had asked," "had given").
Going back to a point raised earlier, did the Israelites wait until first light to leave their houses, or were they expelled during the night? The Scriptures do not conclusively tell us either way. On the surface, Deuteronomy 16:1 seems to imply that Pharaoh expelled them before dawn, while it was still dark: DEUTERONOMY 16:1 "Observe the month of Abib, and keep the Passover to the LORD your God, for in the month of Abib the LORD your God brought you out of Egypt by night.
" (NKJV) However, this Scripture may not mean that the Israelites literally left at night. The phrase "YHVH your God brought you out of Egypt by night" could refer to the event that caused their release, the death of the Egyptian firstborn. After all, it was this 10th plague that occurred that night which finally caused Pharaoh to free them. Even after the Israelites began traveling, they were not out of Egyptian territory until they crossed the Red Sea.
So a figurative meaning for this verse is likely. Yet whether this verse is literal or figurative, the few hours we are talking about does not materially affect the chronology. Despite whether the Israelites left their houses a few hours before dawn or as the sky was lightening in the east, Numbers 33:3 tells us that the Israelites departed from Rameses (also known as the land of Goshen, see Gen.
47:5-6, 11) on the 15th of Abib. They were forced to obey the command of Pharaoh and the exhortations of the frantic Egyptians and start their journey out of slavery that night or just as the daylight portion of 15 Abib was dawning, just a few hours after the death of the Egyptian firstborn: NUMBERS 33:1 These are the journeys of the children of Israel, who went out of the land of Egypt by their armies under the hand of Moses and Aaron.
2 Now Moses wrote down the starting points of their journeys at the command of the LORD. And these are their journeys according to their starting points: 3 They departed from Rameses in the first month, on the fifteenth day of the first month; on the day after the Passover the children of Israel went out with boldness in the sight of all the Egyptians. 4 For the Egyptians were burying all their firstborn, whom the Lord had killed among them.
Also on their gods the LORD had executed judgments. 5 Then the children of Israel moved from Rameses and camped at Succoth. (NKJV) Moses conclusively records in the passage above that the Israelites began their journey out of Egypt on 15 Abib. They left from their area of residence, Rameses (Goshen), shortly before dawn or at the first light of day. During the daylight portion of the 15th, they saw the Egyptians burying their dead as they triumphantly traveled to Succoth.
I am sure that I have not covered every possible objection one could raise about the timing of the first Passover. Hopefully, though, I have shown that the overwhelming majority of the evidence proves that the original Passover lambs were slain on the afternoon of 14 Abib, with the Passover meal being eaten on the night of the 15th. According to the Bible, the actual sequence of events for the first Passover is as follows: The Israelites plundered the Egyptians of gold, silver, and clothing before the death of the Egyptian firstborn, possibly during the morning hours of 14 Abib (Exo.
11:2-3). The congregation of Israel slew the Passover lambs in the afternoon of 14 Abib, "between the evenings." Afterward, the blood was collected and put on the lintel and doorposts of the Israelites' houses (Exo. 12:6-7). At sunset, as 15 Abib began, the Israelites went indoors and prepared the Passover meal – lamb roasted in the fire, with unleavened bread and bitter herbs. The first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread had begun at sundown (Exo.
12:8, 17). The Israelites ate the Passover meal in haste on the night of 15 Abib. According to God's command, they ate it with their belts on their waists, their sandals on their feet, and their staffs in their hands. They were ready to move out quickly (Exo. 12:11). After the Passover meal was finished, the remains of the lambs were burned according to God's instructions (Exo. 12:10). At midnight, the death angel went throughout the land of Egypt, killing all the firstborn of man and beast except those protected by the blood of the lambs (Exo.
12:12, 29). Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron soon after the 10th plague struck. He ordered the Israelites to leave the country. The surviving Egyptians also strongly urged them to leave quickly; they feared that they would all be killed if the Israelites remained (Exo. 12:30-33). The Egyptians essentially drove the Israelites out of the land of Rameses (Goshen) during the early morning of 15 Abib (Exo.
12:34, 37; Num. 33:3; Deu. 16:1). As they boldly traveled out of Rameses toward Succoth during the daylight portion of the 15th of Abib, the Israelites observed the Egyptians burying those killed by the previous night's plague (Num. 33:3-4). After they reached Succoth, the Israelites camped and baked unleavened bread from the dough they had brought out of Egypt. It was unleavened because they were driven out of Egypt hurriedly.
They hadn't had time to prepare provisions for themselves (Exo. 12:37-39; Num. 33:5). This is the sequence of events that the Bible reveals for the first Passover and the beginning of the Exodus. As shown above, the chronology advanced by those who believe the Passover fell completely on 14 Abib has serious flaws. It ignores some Scriptures and contradicts others. Many believe that by partaking of the wine and bread on the night of 14 Nisan, they are keeping the New Testament Passover at the same time the Old Testament Passover was kept.
However, the original Passover was not eaten on the 14th! God commanded the Israelites to keep the Passover as a feast to YHVH throughout their generations. It was to be kept as an everlasting ordinance (Exo. 12:14, 24). Did Yeshua change the time for observing the Passover? MATTHEW 5:17 "Do not think that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets. I did not come to destroy but to fulfill.
18 For assuredly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle will by no means pass from the Law till all is fulfilled." (NKJV) Yeshua fulfilled the symbolism of the Passover by dying on the afternoon of 14 Nisan at the same time the lambs had been sacrificed for centuries. But nowhere does the New Testament record that Yeshua changed the date for the "night to be much observed" (Exo.
12:42), the night God ordained for eating the Passover meal. Since the original Passover, this meal has celebrated the Israelites' deliverance from slavery in Egypt. For believers, it now celebrates our deliverance from bondage to sin in spiritual Egypt, Satan's world. Bryan T. HuieFebruary 23, 1997 Revised: March 19, 2010See Also: Used Appliances Grand Junction Co
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This article is about the Jewish holiday. For other uses, see Passover (disambiguation). Passover A table set up for a Passover Seder. Official name Pesach – פסח (in Hebrew). Observed by Jews. (In various forms also by: Samaritans; Messianic Jews; Christians, some groups claiming affiliation with Israelites). Type Jewish and Samaritan (One of the Three Pilgrimage Festivals), cultural Significance Celebrates The Exodus, the freedom from slavery of the Children of Israel from ancient Egypt that followed the Ten Plagues.
Beginning of the 49 days of Counting of the Omer Connected to barley harvest in spring. Celebrations In Jewish practice, one or two festive Seder meals – first two nights; in the times of the Temple in Jerusalem, the Passover sacrifice. In Samaritan practice, men gather for a religious ceremony on Mount Gerizim that includes the ancient lamb sacrifice (7th day) Begins 15th day of Nisan Ends 21st day of Nisan in Israel, and among some liberal Diaspora Jews; 22nd day of Nisan outside Israel among more traditional Diaspora Jews.
 2018 date sunset of Friday 30 March to nightfall of Friday 6 April / Saturday 7 April (7th day) 2019 date sunset of Friday 19 April to nightfall of Friday 26 April / Saturday 27 April (7th day) Related to Shavuot ("Festival of Weeks") which follows 49 days from the second night of Passover. Passover or Pesach (/ˈpɛsɑːx, ˈpeɪsɑːx/; from Hebrew פֶּסַח Pesah, Pesakh), is an important, biblically derived Jewish holiday.
Jews celebrate Passover as a commemoration of their liberation by God from slavery in ancient Egypt and their freedom as a nation under the leadership of Moses. It commemorates the story of the Exodus as described in the Hebrew Bible, especially in the Book of Exodus, in which the Israelites were freed from slavery in Egypt. According to standard biblical chronology, this event would have taken place at about 1300 BCE (AM 2450).
 Passover is a spring festival which during the existence of the Temple in Jerusalem was connected to the offering of the "first-fruits of the barley", barley being the first grain to ripen and to be harvested in the Land of Israel. Passover commences on the 15th of the Hebrew month of Nisan and lasts for either seven days (in Israel and for Reform Jews and other progressive Jews around the world who adhere to the Biblical commandment) or eight days for Orthodox, Hasidic, and most Conservative Jews (in the diaspora).
 In Judaism, a day commences at dusk and lasts until the following dusk, thus the first day of Passover begins after dusk of the 14th of Nisan and ends at dusk of the 15th day of the month of Nisan. The rituals unique to the Passover celebrations commence with the Passover Seder when the 15th of Nisan has begun. In the Northern Hemisphere Passover takes place in spring as the Torah prescribes it: "in the month of [the] spring" (בחדש האביב Exodus 23:15).
It is one of the most widely celebrated Jewish holidays. In the narrative of the Exodus, the Bible tells that God helped the Children of Israel escape from their slavery in Egypt by inflicting ten plagues upon the ancient Egyptians before the Pharaoh would release his Israelite slaves; the tenth and worst of the plagues was the death of the Egyptian first-born. The Israelites were instructed to mark the doorposts of their homes with the blood of a slaughtered spring lamb and, upon seeing this, the spirit of the Lord knew to pass over the first-born in these homes, hence the English name of the holiday.
 When the Pharaoh freed the Israelites, it is said that they left in such a hurry that they could not wait for bread dough to rise (leaven). In commemoration, for the duration of Passover no leavened bread is eaten, for which reason Passover was called the feast of unleavened bread in the Torah or Old Testament. Thus matzo (flat unleavened bread) is eaten during Passover and it is a tradition of the holiday.
Historically, together with Shavuot ("Pentecost") and Sukkot ("Tabernacles"), Passover is one of the Three Pilgrimage Festivals (Shalosh Regalim) during which the entire population of the kingdom of Judah made a pilgrimage to the Temple in Jerusalem.Samaritans still make this pilgrimage to Mount Gerizim, but only men participate in public worship. Date and duration See also: Hebrew calendar The Passover begins on the 15th day of the month of Nisan, which typically falls in March or April of the Gregorian calendar.
Passover is a spring festival, so the 15th day of Nisan typically begins on the night of a full moon after the northern vernal equinox. However, due to intercalary months or leap months falling after the vernal equinox, Passover sometimes starts on the second full moon after vernal equinox, as in 2016. To ensure that Passover did not start before spring, the tradition in ancient Israel held that the first day of Nisan would not start until the barley was ripe, being the test for the onset of spring.
 If the barley was not ripe, or various other phenomena indicated that spring was not yet imminent, an intercalary month (Adar II) would be added. However, since at least the 4th century, the date has been fixed mathematically. In Israel, Passover is the seven-day holiday of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, with the first and last days celebrated as legal holidays and as holy days involving holiday meals, special prayer services, and abstention from work; the intervening days are known as Chol HaMoed ("Weekdays [of] the Festival").
Diaspora Jews historically celebrated the festival for eight days. Reform and Reconstructionist Jews and Israeli Jews, wherever they are, usually celebrate the holiday over seven days. The reason for this extra day is due to enactment of the ancient Jewish sages. It is thought by many scholars that Jews outside of Israel could not be certain if their local calendars fully conformed to practice of the Temple at Jerusalem, so they added an extra day.
But as this practice attaches only to certain (major) sacred days, others posit the extra day may have been added to accommodate people who had to travel long distances to participate in communal worship and ritual practices; or the practice may have evolved as a compromise between conflicting interpretations of Jewish Law regarding the calendar; or it may have evolved as a safety measure in areas where Jews were commonly in danger, so that their enemies would not be certain on which day to attack.
 Karaites and Samaritans use different versions of the Jewish calendar, which are often out of sync with the modern Jewish calendar by one or two days. In 2009, for example, Nisan 15 on the Jewish calendar used by Rabbinic Judaism corresponds to April 9. On the calendars used by Karaites and Samaritans, Abib or Aviv 15 (as opposed to 'Nisan') corresponds to April 11 in 2009. The Karaite and Samaritan Passovers are each one day long, followed by the six-day Festival of Unleavened Bread – for a total of seven days.
 Origins and Biblical development Illustration of The Exodus from Egypt, 1907 The origins of the Passover festival antedate the Exodus. The Passover ritual, prior to Deuteronomy, is widely thought to have its origins in an apotropaic rite, unrelated to the Exodus, to ensure the protection of a family home, a rite conducted wholly within a clan. Hyssop was employed to daub the blood of a slaughtered sheep on the lintels and door posts to ensure that demonic forces could not enter the home.
 A further hypothesis maintains that, once the Priestly Code was promulgated, the exodus narrative took on a central function, as the apotropaic rite was, arguably, amalgamated with the Canaanite agricultural festival of spring which was a ceremony of Unleavened Bread, connected with the barley harvest. As the Exodus motif grew, the original function and symbolism of these double origins was lost.
 Several motifs replicate the features associated with the Mesopotamian Akitu festival. Other scholars, John Van Seters, J.B.Segal and Tamara Prosic disagree with the merged two-festivals hypothesis. Called the "festival [of] the matzot" (Hebrew: חג המצות hag hamatzot) in the Hebrew Bible, the commandment to keep Passover is recorded in the Book of Leviticus: In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at dusk is the LORD's Passover.
And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread unto the LORD; seven days ye shall eat unleavened bread. In the first day ye shall have a holy convocation; ye shall do no manner of servile work. And ye shall bring an offering made by fire unto the LORD seven days; in the seventh day is a holy convocation; ye shall do no manner of servile work. (Leviticus 23:5–8) The biblical regulations for the observance of the festival require that all leavening be disposed of before the beginning of the 15th of Nisan An unblemished lamb or goat, known as the Korban Pesach or "Paschal Lamb", is to be set apart on Nisan 10, and slaughtered at dusk as Nisan 14 ends in preparation for the 15th of Nisan when it will be eaten after being roasted.
 The literal meaning of the Hebrew is "between the two evenings". It is then to be eaten "that night", Nisan 15, roasted, without the removal of its internal organs with unleavened bread, known as matzo, and bitter herbs known as maror. Nothing of the sacrifice on which the sun rises by the morning of the 15th of Nisan may be eaten, but must be burned. The sacrifices may be performed only in a specific place prescribed by God (for Judaism, Jerusalem, and for Samaritans, Mount Gerizim).
 The biblical regulations pertaining to the original Passover, at the time of the Exodus only, also include how the meal was to be eaten: "with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste: it is the LORD's passover" Exodus 12:11. The biblical requirements of slaying the Paschal lamb in the individual homes of the Hebrews and smearing the blood of the lamb on their doorways were celebrated in Egypt.
However, once Israel was in the wilderness and the tabernacle was in operation, a change was made in those two original requirements (Deuteronomy 16:2–6). Passover lambs were to be sacrificed at the door of the tabernacle and no longer in the homes of the Jews. No longer, therefore, could blood be smeared on doorways. The biblical commandments concerning the Passover (and the Feast of Unleavened Bread) stress the importance of remembering: And thou shalt remember that thou wast a bondman in Egypt; and thou shalt observe and do these statutes" (Deuteronomy 16:12).
Exodus 12:14 commands, in reference to God's sparing of the firstborn from the Tenth Plague: And this day shall be unto you for a memorial, and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD; throughout your generations ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever. Exodus 13:3 repeats the command to remember: Remember this day, in which you came out of Egypt, out of the house of bondage, for by strength the hand of the LORD brought you out from this place.
In extra-biblical sources Some of these details can be corroborated, and to some extent amplified, in extrabiblical sources. The removal (or "sealing up") of the leaven is referred to in the Elephantine papyri, an Aramaic papyrus from 5th century BCE Elephantine in Egypt. The slaughter of the lambs on the 14th is mentioned in The Book of Jubilees, a Jewish work of the Ptolemaic period, and by the Herodian-era writers Josephus and Philo.
These sources also indicate that "between the two evenings" was taken to mean the afternoon.Jubilees states the sacrifice was eaten that night, and together with Josephus states that nothing of the sacrifice was allowed to remain until morning. Philo states that the banquet included hymns and prayers. Etymology The English term "Passover" is first known to be recorded in the English language in William Tyndale's translation of the Bible, later appearing in the King James Version as well.
It is a literal translation of the Hebrew term. The Hebrew פֶּסַח is rendered as Tiberian [pɛsaħ] ( listen), and Modern Hebrew: [ˈpesaχ] Pesah, Pesakh; The Yiddish word is Latinized variously as Peysekh, Paysakh, Paysokh. The etymology is disputed, and hypotheses are divided whether to connect it to psh (to protect, save) or to a word meaning 'limp, dance with limping motions.' Cognate languages yield similar terms with distinct meanings, such as 'make soft, soothe, placate' (Akkadian passahu), 'harvest, commemoration, blow' (Egyptian), or 'separate' (Arabic fsh).
 The verb "pasàch" (פָּסַח) is first mentioned in the Torah's account of the Exodus from Egypt (Exodus 12:23), and there is some debate about its exact meaning: the commonly held assumption that it means "He passed over" (פסח), in reference to God "passing over" (or "skipping") the houses of the Hebrews during the final of the Ten Plagues of Egypt, stems from the translation provided in the Septuagint (παρελευσεται in Exodus 12:23, and εσκεπασεν in Exodus 12:27).
Targum Onkelos translates pesach as "he had pity". Judging from other instances of the verb, and instances of parallelism, a more faithful translation may be "he hovered over, guarding." Indeed, this is the image invoked by the verb in Isaiah 31:5: "As birds hovering, so will the Lord of hosts protect Jerusalem; He will deliver it as He protecteth it, He will rescue it as He passeth over" (כְּצִפֳּרִים עָפוֹת—כֵּן יָגֵן יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת, עַל-יְרוּשָׁלִָם; גָּנוֹן וְהִצִּיל, פָּסֹחַ וְהִמְלִיט.
) (Isaiah 31:5) Both meanings become apparent in Exodus 12:23 when parsed as: the Lord will pass (hover, guard) over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer (destroying angel is commanded to pass by the children of Israel) to come in unto your houses to smite. The term Pesach (Hebrew: פֶּסַח) may also refer to the lamb or goat which was designated as the Passover sacrifice (called the Korban Pesach in Hebrew).
Four days before the Exodus, the Hebrews were commanded to set aside a lamb (Exodus 12:3), and inspect it daily for blemishes. During the day on the 14th of Nisan, they were to slaughter the animal and use its blood to mark their lintels and door posts. Up until midnight on the 15th of Nisan, they were to consume the lamb. On the night of the first Passover at the start of the original Exodus, each family (or group of families) gathered together to eat a meal that included the meat of the Korban Pesach while the Tenth Plague ravaged Egypt.
Passover offering, Korban Pesach Main article: Korban Pesach The main entity in Passover according to Judaism is the sacrificial lamb. During the existence of the Tabernacle and later the Temple in Jerusalem, the focus of the Passover festival was the Passover sacrifice (Hebrew korban Pesach), also known as the Paschal lamb, eaten during the Passover Seder on the 15th of Nisan. Every family large enough to completely consume a young lamb or wild goat was required to offer one for sacrifice at the Jewish Temple on the afternoon of the 14th day of Nisan (Numbers 9:11), and eat it that night, which was the 15th of Nisan (Exodus 12:6).
If the family was too small to finish eating the entire offering in one sitting, an offering was made for a group of families. The sacrifice could not be offered with anything leavened (Exodus 23:18), and had to be roasted, without its head, feet, or inner organs being removed (Exodus 12:9) and eaten together with unleavened bread (matzo) and bitter herbs (maror). One had to be careful not to break any bones from the offering (Exodus 12:46), and none of the meat could be left over by morning (Exodus 12:10 Exodus 23:18).
Because of the Passover sacrifice's status as a sacred offering, the only people allowed to eat it were those who had the obligation to bring the offering. Among those who could not offer or eat the Passover lamb were an apostate (Exodus 12:43), a servant (Exodus 12:45), an uncircumcised man (Exodus 12:48), a person in a state of ritual impurity, except when a majority of Jews are in such a state (Pesahim 66b), and a non-Jew.
The offering had to be made before a quorum of 30 (Pesahim 64b). In the Temple, the Levites sang Hallel while the priests performed the sacrificial service. Men and women were equally obligated regarding the offering (Pesahim 91b). Women were obligated, as men, to perform the Korban Pesach and to participate in a Seder. Today Today, in the absence of the Temple, when no sacrifices are offered or eaten, the mitzvah of the Korban Pesach is memorialized in the Seder Korban Pesach, a set of scriptural and Rabbinic passages dealing with the Passover sacrifice, customarily recited after the Mincha (afternoon prayer) service on the 14th on Nisan, and in the form of the zeroa, a symbolic food placed on the Passover Seder Plate (but not eaten), which is usually a roasted shankbone (or a chicken wing or neck).
The eating of the afikoman substitutes for the eating of the Korban Pesach at the end of the Seder meal (Mishnah Pesachim 119a). Many Sephardi Jews have the custom of eating lamb or goat meat during the Seder in memory of the Korban Pesach. Removing all chametz See also: Chametz § Removal of chametz Burning chametz on the morning before Passover begins Chametz (חמץ, "leavening") is made from one of five types of grains combined with water and left to stand for more than eighteen minutes.
The consumption, keeping, and owning of chametz is forbidden during Passover. Yeast and fermentation are not themselves forbidden as seen for example by wine, which is required, rather than merely permitted. According to Halakha, the ownership of such chametz is also proscribed. Chametz does not include baking soda, baking powder or like products. Although these are defined in English as leavening agents, they leaven by chemical reaction, not by biological fermentation.
Thus, bagels, waffles and pancakes made with baking soda and matzo meal are considered permissible, while bagels made with sourdough and pancakes and waffles made with yeast are prohibited. The Torah commandments regarding chametz are: To remove all chametz from one's home, including things made with chametz, before the first day of Passover (Exodus 12:15). It may be simply used up, thrown out (historically, destroyed by burning), or given or sold to non-Jews (or non-Samaritans, as the case may be).
To refrain from eating chametz or mixtures containing chametz during Passover (Exodus 13:3, Exodus 12:20, Deuteronomy 16:3). Not to possess chametz in one's domain (i.e. home, office, car, etc.) during Passover (Exodus 12:19, Deuteronomy 16:4). Observant Jews spend the weeks before Passover in a flurry of thorough housecleaning, to remove every morsel of chametz from every part of the home. Jewish law requires the elimination of olive-sized or larger quantities of leavening from one's possession, but most housekeeping goes beyond this.
Even the cracks of kitchen counters are thoroughly scrubbed, for example, to remove any traces of flour and yeast, however small. Any item or implement that has handled chametz is generally put away and not used during Passover. Some hotels, resorts, and even cruise ships across America, Europe and Israel also undergo a thorough housecleaning to make their premises "kosher for Pesach" to cater to observant Jews.
 Interpretations for abstinence from leaven or yeast Some scholars suggest that the command to abstain from leavened food or yeast suggests that sacrifices offered to God involve the offering of objects in "their least altered state", that would be nearest to the way in which they were initially made by God. According to other scholars the absence of leaven or yeast means that leaven or yeast symbolizes corruption and spoiling.
 Additionally, there is a tradition of not eating matzoh (flat unleavened bread) in the 30 days before Passover begins so that there will be an increased appetite for it during Passover itself. Sale of chametz See also: Chametz § Mechirah practices Chametz foods blocked from purchase during Passover in a Jerusalem supermarket Chametz may be sold rather than discarded, especially in the case of relatively valuable forms such as liquor distilled from wheat, with the products being repurchased afterward.
In some cases, they may never leave the house, instead being formally sold while remaining in the original owner's possession in a locked cabinet until they can be repurchased after the holiday. Modern observance may also include sealing cabinets and drawers which contain "Chametz" shut by using adhesive tape, which serves a similar purpose to a lock but also shows evidence of tampering. Although the practice of selling "Chametz" dates back many years, some Reform rabbinical authorities have come to regard it with disdain – since the supposed "new owner" never takes actual possession of the goods.
 The sale of chametz may also be conducted communally via a rabbi, who becomes the "agent" for all the community's Jews through a halakhic procedure called a kinyan (acquisition). Each householder must put aside all the chametz he is selling into a box or cupboard, and the rabbi enters into a contract to sell all the chametz to a non-Jew (who is not obligated to celebrate the commandments) in exchange for a small down payment (e.
g. $1.00), with the remainder due after Passover. This sale is considered completely binding according to Halakha, and at any time during the holiday, the buyer may come to take or partake of his property. The rabbi then re-purchases the goods for less than they were sold at the end of the holiday. Search for leaven Wikisource has original text related to this article: Talmud's introduction to checking for chametz and defining or (literally, "light") (Tractate Pesachim 2a) On the night of the fourteenth of Nisan, the night before the Passover Seder (after nightfall on the evening before Passover eve), Jews do a formal search in their homes known as bedikat chametz for any possible remaining leaven (chametz).
The Talmudic sages instructed that a search for chametz be made in every home, place of work, or any place where chametz may have been brought during the year. When the first Seder is on a Saturday night, the search is conducted on the preceding Thursday night (thirteenth of Nisan) as chametz cannot be burned during Shabbat. The Talmud in Pesahim (p. 2a) derives from the Torah that the search for chametz be conducted by the light of a candle and therefore is done at night, and although the final destruction of the chametz (usually by burning it in a small bonfire) is done on the next morning, the blessing is made at night because the search is both in preparation for and part of the commandments to remove and destroy all chametz from one's possession.
 Blessing for search of chametz and nullification of chametz Before the search is begun there is a special blessing. If several people or family members assist in the search then only one person, usually the head of that family recites the blessing having in mind to include everyone present: Blessed are You, Hashem our God, King of the universe, Who has sanctified us with his commandments and has commanded us concerning the removal of chametz.
In Hebrew: ברוך אתה יהוה אלהינו מלך העולם אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו על בעור חמץ The search is then usually conducted by the head of the household joined by his family including children under the supervision of their parents. It is customary to turn off the lights and conduct the search by candlelight, using a feather and a wooden spoon: candlelight effectively illuminates corners without casting shadows; the feather can dust crumbs out of their hiding places; and the wooden spoon which collects the crumbs can be burned the next day with the chametz.
However, most contemporary Jewish-Orthodox authorities permit using a flashlight, while some strongly encourage it due to the danger coupled with using a candle. Because the house is assumed to have been thoroughly cleaned by the night before Passover, there is some concern that making a blessing over the search for chametz will be in vain (bracha l'vatala) if nothing is found. Thus, 10 morsels of bread or cereal smaller than the size of an olive are traditionally hidden throughout the house in order to ensure that some chametz will be found.
Upon conclusion of the search, with all the small pieces safely wrapped up and put in one bag or place, to be burned the next morning, the following is said: Any chametz or leaven that is in my possession which I have not seen and have not removed and do not know about should be annulled and become ownerless like the dust of the earth. Original declaration as recited in Aramaic: כל חמירא וחמיעא דאכא ברשותי דלא חמתה ודלא בערתה ודלא ידענא לה לבטל ולהוי הפקר כעפרא דארעא Morning of 14th of Nissan Note that if the 14th of Nissan is Shabbat, many of the below will be celebrated on the 13th instead due to restrictions in place during Shabbat.
Fast of the Firstborn Main articles: Fast of the Firstborn and siyum On the day preceding the first Passover seder (or on Thursday morning preceding the seder, when the first seder falls on Motza'ei Shabbat), firstborn sons are commanded to celebrate the Fast of the Firstborn which commemorates the salvation of the Hebrew firstborns. According to Exodus 12:29, God struck down all Egyptian firstborns while the Israelites were not affected.
However, it is customary for synagogues to conduct a siyum (ceremony marking the completion of a section of Torah learning) right after morning prayers, and the celebratory meal that follows cancels the firstborn's obligation to fast. Burning and nullification of chametz On the morning of the 14th of Nisan, any leavened products that remain in the householder's possession, along with the 10 morsels of bread from the previous night's search, are burned (s'rayfat chametz).
The head of the household repeats the declaration of biyur chametz, declaring any chametz that may not have been found to be null and void "as the dust of the earth": Any chametz or leaven that is in my possession which I have not seen and have not removed and do not know about should be annulled and become ownerless like the dust of the earth. Original declaration as recited in Aramaic: כל חמירא וחמיעא דאכא ברשותי דלא חמתה ודלא בערתה ודלא ידענא לה לבטל ולהוי הפקר כעפרא דארעא Should more chametz actually be found in the house during the Passover holiday, it must be burnt as soon as possible.
Unlike chametz, which can be eaten any day of the year except during Passover, kosher for Passover foods can be eaten year-round. They need not be burnt or otherwise discarded after the holiday ends. The historic "Paschal lamb" Passover sacrifice (Korban Pesach) has not been brought following the Romans' destruction of the Second Jewish temple approximately two thousand years ago, and it is therefore still not part of the modern Jewish holiday.
However, the Paschal lamb is still a principal feature of Falashah, Karaite and Samaritan observance. In the times when the Jewish Temples stood, the lamb was slaughtered and cooked on the evening of Passover and was completely consumed before the morning as described in Exodus 12:3–11. Separate kosher for Passover utensils and dishes Due to the Torah injunction not to eat chametz during Passover (Exodus 12:15), observant families typically own complete sets of serving dishes, glassware and silverware (and in some cases, even separate dishwashers and sinks) which have never come into contact with chametz, for use only during Passover.
Under certain circumstances, some chametz utensils can be immersed in boiling water (hagalat keilim) to purge them of any traces of chametz that may have accumulated during the year. Many Sephardic families thoroughly wash their year-round glassware and then use it for Passover, as the Sephardic position is that glass does not absorb enough traces of food to present a problem. Similarly, ovens may be used for Passover either by setting the self-cleaning function to the highest degree for a certain period of time, or by applying a blow torch to the interior until the oven glows red hot (a process called libun gamur).
 Matzah Main article: Matzo Machine made shmura matza A symbol of the Passover holiday is matzo, an unleavened flatbread made solely from flour and water which is continually worked from mixing through baking, so that it is not allowed to rise. Matzo may be made by machine or by hand. The Torah contains an instruction to eat matzo, specifically, on the first night of Passover and to eat only unleavened bread (in practice, matzo) during the entire week of Passover.
 Consequently, the eating of matzo figures prominently in the Passover Seder. There are several explanations for this. The Torah says that it is because the Hebrews left Egypt with such haste that there was no time to allow baked bread to rise; thus flat, unleavened bread, matzo, is a reminder of the rapid departure of the Exodus. Other scholars teach that in the time of the Exodus, matzo was commonly baked for the purpose of traveling because it preserved well and was light to carry (making it similar to hardtack), suggesting that matzo was baked intentionally for the long journey ahead.
Matzo has also been called Lechem Oni (Hebrew: "bread of poverty"). There is an attendant explanation that matzo serves as a symbol to remind Jews what it is like to be a poor slave and to promote humility, appreciate freedom, and avoid the inflated ego symbolized by more luxurious leavened bread. Hand made shmura matzo Shmura matzo ("watched" or "guarded" matzo), is the bread of preference for the Passover Seder in Orthodox Jewish communities.
Shmura matzo is made from wheat that is guarded from contamination by chametz from the time of summer harvest to its baking into matzos five to ten months later. In the weeks before Passover, matzos are prepared for holiday consumption. In many Orthodox Jewish communities, men traditionally gather in groups ("chaburas") to bake handmade matzo for use at the Seder, the dough being rolled by hand, resulting in a large and round matzo.
Chaburas also work together in machine-made matzo factories, which produce the typically square-shaped matzo sold in stores. The baking of matzo is labor-intensive, as only 18–22 minutes is permitted between the mixing of flour and water to the conclusion of baking and removal from the oven. Consequently, only a small number of matzos can be baked at one time, and the chabura members are enjoined to work the dough constantly so that it is not allowed to ferment and rise.
A special cutting tool is run over the dough just before baking to prick any bubbles which might make the matza puff up; this creates the familiar dotted holes in the matzo. After the matzos come out of the oven, the entire work area is scrubbed down and swept to make sure that no pieces of old, potentially leavened dough remain, as any stray pieces are now chametz, and can contaminate the next batch of matzo.
Some machine-made matzos are completed within 5 minutes of being kneaded. Passover seder Table set for the Passover Seder Main article: Passover Seder It is traditional for Jewish families to gather on the first night of Passover (first two nights in Orthodox and Conservative communities outside Israel) for a special dinner called a seder (סדר—derived from the Hebrew word for "order" or "arrangement", referring to the very specific order of the ritual).
The table is set with the finest china and silverware to reflect the importance of the meal. During this meal, the story of the Exodus from Egypt is retold using a special text called the Haggadah. Four cups of wine are consumed at various stages in the narrative. The Haggadah divides the night's procedure into 15 parts: Kadeish קדש – recital of Kiddush blessing and drinking of the first cup of wine Urchatz ורחץ – the washing of the hands – without blessing Karpas כרפס – dipping of the karpas in salt water Yachatz יחץ – breaking the middle matzo; the larger piece becomes the afikoman which is eaten later during the ritual of Tzafun Maggid מגיד – retelling the Passover story, including the recital of "the four questions" and drinking of the second cup of wine Rachtzah רחצה – second washing of the hands – with blessing Motzi מוציא – traditional blessing before eating bread products Matzo מצה – blessing before eating matzo Maror מרור – eating of the maror Koreich כורך – eating of a sandwich made of matzo and maror Shulchan oreich שולחן עורך – lit.
"set table"—the serving of the holiday meal Tzafun צפון – eating of the afikoman Bareich ברך – blessing after the meal and drinking of the third cup of wine Hallel הלל – recital of the Hallel, traditionally recited on festivals; drinking of the fourth cup of wine Nirtzah נירצה – conclusion These 15 parts parallel the 15 steps in the Temple in Jerusalem on which the Levites stood during Temple services, and which were memorialized in the 15 Psalms (#120–134) known as Shir HaMa'alot (Hebrew: שיר המעלות, "Songs of Ascent").
 The seder is replete with questions, answers, and unusual practices (e.g. the recital of Kiddush which is not immediately followed by the blessing over bread, which is the traditional procedure for all other holiday meals) to arouse the interest and curiosity of the children at the table. The children are also rewarded with nuts and candies when they ask questions and participate in the discussion of the Exodus and its aftermath.
Likewise, they are encouraged to search for the afikoman, the piece of matzo which is the last thing eaten at the seder. Audience participation and interaction is the rule, and many families' seders last long into the night with animated discussions and much singing. The seder concludes with additional songs of praise and faith printed in the Haggadah, including Chad Gadya ("One Little Kid" or "One Little Goat").
Maror Types of maror: grated horseradish, romaine lettuce, whole horseradish root Maror (bitter herbs) symbolizes the bitterness of slavery in Egypt. The following verse from the Torah underscores that symbolism: "And they embittered (ve-yimareru וימררו) their lives with hard labor, with mortar and with bricks and with all manner of labor in the field; any labor that they made them do was with hard labor" (Exodus 1:14).
Silver seder plate Four cups of wine There is a Rabbinic requirement that four cups of wine are to be drunk during the seder meal. This applies to both men and women. The Mishnah says (Pes. 10:1) that even the poorest man in Israel has an obligation to drink. Each cup is connected to a different part of the seder: the first cup is for Kiddush, the second cup is connected with the recounting of the Exodus, the drinking of the third cup concludes Birkat Hamazon and the fourth cup is associated with Hallel.
The four questions and participation of children See also: The four questions Children have a very important role in the Passover seder. Traditionally the youngest child is prompted to ask questions about the Passover seder, beginning with the words, Mah Nishtana HaLeila HaZeh (Why is this night different from all other nights?). The questions encourage the gathering to discuss the significance of the symbols in the meal.
The questions asked by the child are: Why is this night different from all other nights? On all other nights, we eat either unleavened or leavened bread, but tonight we eat only unleavened bread? On all other nights, we eat all kinds of vegetables, but tonight, we eat only bitter herbs? On all other nights, we do not dip [our food] even once, but tonight we dip twice? On all other nights, we eat either sitting or reclining, but tonight we only recline? Often the leader of the seder and the other adults at the meal will use prompted responses from the Haggadah, which states, "The more one talks about the Exodus from Egypt, the more praiseworthy he is.
" Many readings, prayers, and stories are used to recount the story of the Exodus. Many households add their own commentary and interpretation and often the story of the Jews is related to the theme of liberation and its implications worldwide. Afikoman 14th century Haggadah The afikoman — an integral part of the Seder itself — is used to engage the interest and excitement of the children at the table.
During the fourth part of the Seder, called Yachatz, the leader breaks the middle piece of matzo into two. He sets aside the larger portion as the afikoman. Many families use the afikoman as a device for keeping the children awake and alert throughout the Seder proceedings by hiding the afikoman and offering a prize for its return. Alternatively, the children are allowed to "steal" the afikoman and demand a reward for its return.
In either case, the afikoman must be consumed during the twelfth part of the Seder, Tzafun. Concluding songs After the Hallel, the fourth glass of wine is drunk, and participants recite a prayer that ends in "Next year in Jerusalem!". This is followed by several lyric prayers that expound upon God's mercy and kindness, and give thanks for the survival of the Jewish people through a history of exile and hardship.
"Echad Mi Yodea" ("Who Knows One?") is a playful song, testing the general knowledge of the children (and the adults). Some of these songs, such as "Chad Gadya" are allegorical. Counting of the Omer Beginning on the second night of Passover, the 16th day of Nisan, Jews begin the practice of the Counting of the Omer, a nightly reminder of the approach of the holiday of Shavuot 50 days hence. Each night after the evening prayer service, men and women recite a special blessing and then enumerate the day of the Omer.
On the first night, for example, they say, "Today is the first day in (or, to) the Omer"; on the second night, "Today is the second day in the Omer." The counting also involves weeks; thus, the seventh day is commemorated, "Today is the seventh day, which is one week in the Omer." The eighth day is marked, "Today is the eighth day, which is one week and one day in the Omer," etc. When the Temple stood in Jerusalem, a sheaf of new-cut barley was presented before the altar on the second day of Unleavened Bread.
Josephus writes: On the second day of unleavened bread, that is to say the sixteenth, our people partake of the crops which they have reaped and which have not been touched till then, and esteeming it right first to do homage to God, to whom they owe the abundance of these gifts, they offer to him the first-fruits of the barley in the following way. After parching and crushing the little sheaf of ears and purifying the barley for grinding, they bring to the altar an assaron for God, and, having flung a handful thereof on the altar, they leave the rest for the use of the priests.
Thereafter all are permitted, publicly or individually, to begin harvest. Since the destruction of the Temple, this offering is brought in word rather than deed. One explanation for the Counting of the Omer is that it shows the connection between Passover and Shavuot. The physical freedom that the Hebrews achieved at the Exodus from Egypt was only the beginning of a process that climaxed with the spiritual freedom they gained at the giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai.
Another explanation is that the newborn nation which emerged after the Exodus needed time to learn their new responsibilities vis-a-vis Torah and mitzvot before accepting God's law. The distinction between the Omer offering—a measure of barley, typically animal fodder—and the Shavuot offering—two loaves of wheat bread, human food—symbolizes the transition process. Chol HaMoed: The intermediate days of Passover In Israel, Passover lasts for seven days with the first and last days being major Jewish holidays.
In Orthodox and Conservative communities, no work is performed on those days, with most of the rules relating to the observances of Shabbat being applied. Outside Israel, in Orthodox and Conservative communities, the holiday lasts for eight days with the first two days and last two days being major holidays. In the intermediate days necessary work can be performed. Reform Judaism observes Passover over seven days, with the first and last days being major holidays.
Like the holiday of Sukkot, the intermediary days of Passover are known as Chol HaMoed (festival weekdays) and are imbued with a semi-festive status. It is a time for family outings and picnic lunches of matzo, hardboiled eggs, fruits and vegetables, and Passover treats such as macaroons and homemade candies. Passover cake recipes call for potato starch or Passover cake flour made from finely granulated matzo instead of regular flour, and a large amount of eggs to achieve fluffiness.
Cookie recipes use matzo farfel (broken bits of matzo) or ground nuts as the base. For families with Eastern European backgrounds, borsht, a soup made with beets, is a Passover tradition. A Passover brownie cake baked in a Wonder Pot. While kosher for Passover packaged goods are available in stores, some families opt to cook everything from scratch during Passover week. In Israel, families that do not kasher their ovens can bake cakes, casseroles, and even meat on the stovetop in a Wonder Pot, an Israeli invention consisting of three parts: an aluminium pot shaped like a Bundt pan, a hooded cover perforated with venting holes, and a thick, round, metal disc with a center hole which is placed between the Wonder Pot and the flame to disperse heat.
 Seventh day of Passover Shvi'i shel Pesach (שביעי של פסח) ("seventh [day] of Passover") is another full Jewish holiday, with special prayer services and festive meals. Outside the Land of Israel, in the Jewish diaspora, Shvi'i shel Pesach is celebrated on both the seventh and eighth days of Passover. This holiday commemorates the day the Children of Israel reached the Red Sea and witnessed both the miraculous "Splitting of the Sea", the drowning of all the Egyptian chariots, horses and soldiers that pursued them, and the Passage of the Red Sea.
According to the Midrash, only the Pharaoh was spared to give testimony to the miracle that occurred. Hasidic Rebbes traditionally hold a tish on the night of Shvi'i shel Pesach and place a cup or bowl of water on the table before them. They use this opportunity to speak about the Splitting of the Sea to their disciples, and sing songs of praise to God. Second Passover The "Second Passover" (Pesach Sheni) on the 14th of Iyar in the Hebrew Calendar is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible (Numbers 9:6–13) as a make-up day for people who were unable to offer the pesach sacrifice at the appropriate time due to ritual impurity or distance from Jerusalem.
Just as on the first Pesach night, breaking bones from the second Paschal offering (Numbers 9:12) or leaving meat over until morning (Numbers 9:12) is prohibited. Today, Pesach Sheni on the 14th of Iyar has the status of a very minor holiday (so much so that many of the Jewish people have never even heard of it, and it essentially does not exist outside of Orthodox and traditional Conservative Judaism).
There are not really any special prayers or observances that are considered Jewish law. The only change in the liturgy is that in some communities Tachanun, a penitential prayer omitted on holidays, is not said. There is a custom, though not Jewish law, to eat just one piece of matzo on that night. Traditional foods Matzah brei (fried matzo and egg), a popular Passover dish Because the house is free of chametz for eight days, the Jewish household typically eats different foods during the week of Passover.
Some include: Ashkenazi foods Matzah brei – Matzo softened in milk or water and fried with egg and fat; served either savory or sweet Matzo kugel – A kugel made with matzo instead of noodles Charoset – A sweet mixture of fruit, fresh, dried or both; nuts; spices; honey; and sometimes wine. The charoset is a symbol of the mortar the Israelites used for building while enslaved in Egypt (See Passover seder) Chrain – Horseradish and beet relish Gefilte fish – Poached fish patties or fish balls made from a mixture of ground, de-boned fish, mostly carp or pike Chicken soup with matzah balls (kneydlach) – Chicken soup served with matzo-meal dumplings Passover noodles - Noodles prepared from potato flour and eggs, served in soup.
Batter is fried like thin crepes, which are stacked, rolled up and sliced into ribbons. Sephardi foods Kafteikas di prasa – Fried balls made of leeks, meat, and matzo meal Lamb or chicken leg – A symbol of God's strong hand, and korban pesach Mina (pastel di pesach) – a meat pie made with matzos Spring green vegetables – artichoke, fava beans, peas Sermons, liturgy, and song The story of Passover, with its message that slaves can go free, and that the future can be better than the present, has inspired a number of religious sermons, prayers, and songs—including spirituals (what used to be called "Negro Spirituals"), within the African-American community.
Rabbi Philip R. Alstat, an early leader of Conservative Judaism, known for his fiery rhetoric and powerful oratory skills, wrote and spoke in 1939 about the power of the Passover story during the rise of Nazi persecution and terror: Perhaps in our generation the counsel of our Talmudic sages may seem superfluous, for today the story of our enslavement in Egypt is kept alive not only by ritualistic symbolism, but even more so by tragic realism.
We are the contemporaries and witnesses of its daily re-enactment. Are not our hapless brethren in the German Reich eating "the bread of affliction"? Are not their lives embittered by complete disenfranchisement and forced labor? Are they not lashed mercilessly by brutal taskmasters behind the walls of concentration camps? Are not many of their men-folk being murdered in cold blood? Is not the ruthlessness of the Egyptian Pharaoh surpassed by the sadism of the Nazi dictators? And yet, even in this hour of disaster and degradation, it is still helpful to "visualize oneself among those who had gone forth out of Egypt.
" It gives stability and equilibrium to the spirit. Only our estranged kinsmen, the assimilated, and the de-Judaized, go to pieces under the impact of the blow....But those who visualize themselves among the groups who have gone forth from the successive Egypts in our history never lose their sense of perspective, nor are they overwhelmed by confusion and despair.... It is this faith, born of racial experience and wisdom, which gives the oppressed the strength to outlive the oppressors and to endure until the day of ultimate triumph when we shall "be brought forth from bondage unto freedom, from sorrow unto joy, from mourning unto festivity, from darkness unto great light, and from servitude unto redemption.
Influence on other religions Christianity The two disciples, Peter and John, were sent by Christ to prepare the Passover See also: Easter and Passover (Christian holiday) The Christian feast of Maundy Thursday finds its roots in the Jewish feast of Passover, the night on which the Last Supper is generally thought to have occurred. Islam See also: Day of Ashura § Significance of Ashura for Sunni Muslims In the Sunni sect of Islam, it is recommended to fast on the day of Ashura (10th of Muharram) based on narrations attributed to Muhammad.
The fast is celebrated in order to commemorate the day when Moses and his followers were saved from Pharaoh by God by creating a path in the Red Sea (i.e. The Exodus). According to Muslim tradition, the Jews of Madinah used to fast on the tenth of Muharram in observance of Passover. In narrations recorded in the al-Hadith (sayings of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad) of Sahih al-Bukhari, it is recommended that Muslims fast on this day.
It is also stipulated that its observance should differ from the feast of Passover which is celebrated by the Jews, and he stated that Muslims should fast for two days instead of one, either on the 9th and 10th day or on the 10th and 11th day of Muharram.:Volume 3, Book 31, Number 222 See also Gebrochts Haggadah of Pesach Jewish greetings Kitniyot Quartodecimanism References ^ "First day of Passover".
timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2012-03-17. ^ "What Is Passover?". Rabbinical College of Australia and N.Z. Retrieved 2012-03-17. ^ "Last day of Passover". timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2012-03-17. ^ "Pesach". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ The Seder Olam Rabbah calculates the lifespan of Moses as 1391–1271 BCE, which would correspond to a date of the Exodus of forty years before 1271, i.
e. 1311 BCE. ^ a b Josephus, Antiquities 3.250–251, in Josephus IV Jewish Antiquities Books I–IV, Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1930, pp. 437–439. ^ Shapiro, Rabbi Mark Dov. "How Long is Passover?". The Web Pages of Sinai Temple. Retrieved April 9, 2015. ^ Dreyfus, Ben. "Is Passover 7 or 8 Days?". ReformJudaism.org. Union for Reform Judaism. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
^ Exodus 12:11–13 ^ Exodus 12:17,Lev 23:6, Numbers 28:17, Numbers 33:3 ^ Gitlitz, David M.; Davidson, Linda Kay (2006). Pilgrimage and the Jews. Westport, CT: Praeger. pp. 24–35. ^ K'fir, Amnon (2007-05-02). "The Samaritans' Passover sacrifice". ynet news. Retrieved 2008-10-10. ^ "Ancient Samaritan sect marks Passover sacrifice near Nablus". Haaretz. 2007-05-01. Retrieved 2008-10-10. ^ Hopkins, Edward J.
(1996). "FULL MOON, EASTER & PASSOVER". University of Wisconsin. Retrieved 10 April 2017. ^ The barley had to be "eared out" (ripe) in order to have a wave-sheaf offering of the first fruits according to the Law. Jones, Stephen (1996). Secrets of Time. This also presupposes that the cycle is based on the northern hemisphere seasons. ^ "..., when the fruit had not grown properly, when the winter rains had not stopped, when the roads for Passover pilgrims had not dried up, and when the young pigeons had not become fledged.
The council on intercalation considered the astronomical facts together with the religious requirements of Passover and the natural conditions of the country." – Spier, Arthur (1952). The Comprehensive Hebrew Calendar. New York: Behrman House, Inc., p. 1 ^ "In the fourth century, ... the patriarch Hillel II ... made public the system of calendar calculation which up to then had been a closely guarded secret.
It had been used in the past only to check the observations and testimonies of witnesses, and to determine the beginning of the spring season." – Spier 1952, p. 2 ^ De Lange, Nicholas (2000). An Introduction to Judaism. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press. p. 97 ^ Stern, Sacha (2001). Calendar and Community: A History of the Jewish Calendar 2nd Century BCE – 10th Century CE. Oxford University Press.
p. viii. ISBN 0198270348. ^ Cohen, Jeffrey M. (2008). 1,001 Questions and Answers on Pesach. p. 291. ISBN 0853038082. ^ Audirsch, Jeffrey G. (2014). The Legislative Themes of Centralization: From Mandate to Demise. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 108. ISBN 9781620320389. ^ Levinson, Bernard M. (1997). Deuteronomy and the Hermeneutics of Legal Innovation. Oxford University Press. pp. 57–58. ISBN 9780195354577.
^ Prosic, Tamara (2004). The Development and Symbolism of Passover. A&C Black. pp. 23–27. ISBN 9780567287892. ^ Prosic, p. 28 ^ Prosic pp. 28ff. pp. 32ff. ^ Exodus 13:7 ^ Exodus 12:3 ^ Exodus 12:6 ^ Exodus 12:6 English Standard Version ^ a b Exodus 12:8 ^ Exodus 12:9 ^ Exodus 12:10 ^ Deuteronomy 16:2,Deuteronomy 16:5 ^ James B. Prichard, ed., The Ancient Near East – An Anthology of Texts and Pictures, Volume 1, Princeton University Press, 1958, p.
278. ^ "On the feast called Passover...they sacrifice from the ninth to the eleventh hour", Josephus, Jewish War 6.423–428, in Josephus III, The Jewish War, Book IV–VII, Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1979. Philo in one place (Special Laws 2.148) states that the victims are sacrificed "from noon till eventide", and in another place (Questions on Exodus 1.11) that the sacrifices begin at the ninth hour.
According to Jubilees 49.12, "it is not fitting to sacrifice [the Passover] during any time of light except during the time of the border of evening." ^ Jubilees 49.1. ^ "And what is left of its flesh from the third of the night and beyond, they shall burn with fire," Jubilees 49.12. "We celebrate [the Passover] by fraternities, nothing of the sacrificial victims being kept for the morrow," Josephus, Antiquities 3.
248. ^ "The guests assembled for the banquet have been cleansed by purificatory lustrations, and are there...to fulfill with prayers and hymns the custom handed down by their fathers." Philo, Special Laws 2.148, in Philo VII: On the Decalog; On the Special Laws I–III, Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1937. ^ Prosic, p. 32. ^ a b c Bokser, Baruch M. (1992) "Unleavened Bread and Passover, Feasts of" in The Anchor Bible Dictionary, ed.
David Noel Freedman (New York: Doubleday), 6:755–765 ^ Kitov, Eliyahu (1997). The Book of Our Heritage: The Jewish Year and Its Days of Significance. Feldheim. p. 562. ^ a b c d e Pomerantz, Batsheva (April 22, 2005). "Making matzo: A time-honored tradition". Jewish News of Greater Phoenix. Archived from the original on January 14, 2013. ^ "Ultra Orthodox burn leavened food before Passover". Haaretz.
2011-04-19. Retrieved 2014-04-17. ^ Rotkovitz, Miri (6 May 2016). "Get Out Of Town: Your Guide to Kosher Travel". The Spruce. Retrieved 10 April 2017. ^ Greenberg, Moshe (1974) "Lessons on Exodus". New York ^ Sarna, Nahum M. (1986) "Exploring Exodus". New York ^ Jacobs, Louis; Rose, Michael (23 March 1983). "The Laws of Pesach". Friends of Louis Jacobs. Retrieved 10 April 2017. ^ Pesach questions and answers Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine.
by the Torah Learning Center. ^ a b c d e Gold, Avie; Zlotowitz, Meir; Scherman, Nosson (1990–2002). The Complete ArtScroll Machzor: Pesach. Brooklyn, New York, USA: Mesorah Publications, Ltd. pp. 2–3. ISBN 0-89906-696-8. ^ Lagnado, Lucette (18 April 2011). "As Passover Nears, These Rabbis Are Getting Out Their Blowtorches". The Wall Street Journal. New York. pp. A1. ^ Exodus 12:18 ^ "Thought For Food: An Overview of the Seder".
AskMoses.com – Judaism, Ask a Rabbi – Live. ^ What is the kabbalistic view on chametz? by Rabbi Yossi Marcus ^ "Making Matzah the Old-Fashioned Way". The Jewish Federations of North America. Archived from the original on April 2, 2012. Retrieved 2014-04-17. ^ "Shir Ha Ma'a lot". Kolhator.org.il. Retrieved 2014-04-17. ^ Karaite Jews begin the count on the Sunday within the holiday week. This leads to Shavuot for the Karaites always falling on a Sunday.
^ Scharfstein, Sol (1999). Understanding Jewish Holidays and Customs: Historical and Contemporary. p. 36–37. ISBN 0881256269. ^ Cohn, Ellen (2000). "In Search of the Omer". In Bernstein, Ellen. Ecology and the Jewish Spirit: Where Nature and the Sacred Meet. p. 164. ISBN 1580230822. ^ "Roast in the Wonder Pot", The Kosher For Pesach Cookbook (1978). Jerusalem:Yeshivat Aish HaTorah Women's Organization, p.
58. ^ Neiman, Rachel (2008-06-15). "Nostalgia Sunday". 21c Israelity blog. Archived from the original on 2011-04-27. Retrieved 2010-04-01. ^ The eighth day is known as Acharon shel Pesach, "last [day] of Passover". ^ "Pesach Sheini". ^ WATCH: Grandma Hanna's Lokshen Are a Perfect Passover Dish ^ The Canadian Jewish Chronicle, March 31, 1939 ^ Windsor, Gwyneth; Hughes, John (November 21, 1990). Worship and Festivals.
Heinemann. ISBN 9780435302733. Retrieved 2009-04-11. On the Thursday, which is known as Maundy Thursday, Christians remember the Last Supper which Jesus had with his disciples. It was the Jewish Feast of the Passover, and the meal which they had together was the traditional Seder meal, eaten that evening by the Jews everywhere. ^ Bukhari. Sahih Bukhari. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Passover.
Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Passover. Passover Resources – ReformJudaism.org Guide to Passover – chabad.org 'Peninei Halachah' Jewish Law – Yhb.org.il Aish.com Passover Primer Jewish Encyclopedia: Passover Akhlah: The Jewish Children's Learning Network All about Pesach Secular dates for passover "Passover collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
v t e Passover Seder Seder Afikoman The Exodus Ha Lachma Anya Ma Nishtana "Outstretched Arm" Ten Plagues White House Passover Seder Seder Plate Beitzah Charoset Karpas Maror Zeroa Haggadah Songs Adir Hu Chad Gadya Dayenu Echad Mi Yodea L'Shana Haba'ah Illustrations Birds' Head Haggadah Maxwell House Haggadah Sarajevo Haggadah Szyk Haggadah Passover foods Matzah products Matzo Matzah ball Matzah brei Matzo farfel granola Matzah pizza Matzah companies Streit's Manischewitz René Neymann Yehuda Matzos Rakusen's Religious Observances Bedikas Chametz Fast of the Firstborn Eve of Passover on Shabbat Passover sacrifice Chol HaMoed Mimouna Isru Chag Pesach Sheni Seharane Laws/Customs Chametz Challah from Shmurah Matzah Kitniyot Gebrochts Prayers Song of Songs Torah readings Prayer for dew v t e Jewish and Israeli holidays and observances Jewish holidays and observances Shabbat Shabbat High Holy Days Rosh Hashanah Fast of Gedalia Ten Days of Repentance Yom Kippur Three Pilgrimage Festivals Passover Fast of the Firstborn Pesach Sheni Shavuot Sukkot Hoshana Rabbah Shemini Atzeret Simchat Torah Yom tov sheni shel galuyot Chol HaMoed Isru chag Rosh Chodesh Hanukkah Tenth of Tevet Tu BiShvat Fast of Esther Purim Purim Katan Counting of the Omer Lag BaOmer 17th of Tammuz The Three Weeks The Nine Days Tisha B'Av Tu B'Av Rosh Hashanah LaBehema Holidays / memorial days of the State of Israel Yom HaAtzmaut (Independence Day) Yom HaZikaron (Memorial Day) Yom HaShoah (Holocaust Remembrance Day) Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) Yom HaAliyah (Aliyah Day) Ethnic minority holidays Mimouna Seharane Sigd Hebrew calendar months Tishrei Cheshvan Kislev Tevet Shevat Adar and Adar Sheni Nisan Iyar Sivan Tammuz Av Elul Jewish and Israeli holidays 2000–2050 v t e Holidays, observances, and celebrations in the United States January New Year's Day (federal) Martin Luther King Jr.
Day (federal) Confederate Heroes Day (TX) Fred Korematsu Day (CA, FL, HI, VA) Idaho Human Rights Day (ID) Inauguration Day (federal quadrennial, DC area) Kansas Day (KS) Lee–Jackson Day (formerly Lee–Jackson–King Day) (VA) Robert E. Lee Day (FL) Stephen Foster Memorial Day (36) The Eighth (LA, former federal) January–February Super Bowl Sunday FebruaryAmerican Heart MonthBlack History Month Washington's Birthday/Presidents' Day (federal) Valentine's Day Georgia Day (GA) Groundhog Day Lincoln's Birthday (CA, CT, IL, IN, MO, NJ, NY, WV) National Girls and Women in Sports Day National Freedom Day (36) Primary Election Day (WI) Ronald Reagan Day (CA) Rosa Parks Day (CA, MO) Susan B.
Anthony Day (CA, FL, NY, WI, WV, proposed federal) February–March Mardi Gras Ash Wednesday (religious) Courir de Mardi Gras (religious) Super Tuesday MarchIrish-American Heritage MonthNational Colon Cancer Awareness MonthWomen's History Month St. Patrick's Day (religious) Spring break (week) Casimir Pulaski Day (IL) Cesar Chavez Day (CA, CO, TX, proposed federal) Evacuation Day (Suffolk County, MA) Harriet Tubman Day (NY) Holi (NY, religious) Mardi Gras (AL (in two counties), LA) Maryland Day (MD) National Poison Prevention Week (week) Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole Day (HI) Saint Joseph's Day (religious) Seward's Day (AK) Texas Independence Day (TX) Town Meeting Day (VT) March–April Easter (religious) Palm Sunday (religious) Passover (religious) Good Friday (CT, NC, PR, religious) Easter Monday (religious) AprilConfederate History Month 420 Day April Fools' Day Arbor Day Confederate Memorial Day (AL, MS) Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust (week) Earth Day Emancipation Day (DC) Thomas Jefferson's Birthday (AL) Pascua Florida (FL) Patriots' Day (MA, ME) San Jacinto Day (TX) Siblings Day Walpurgis Night (religious) MayAsian Pacific American Heritage MonthJewish American Heritage Month Memorial Day (federal) Mother's Day (36) Cinco de Mayo Harvey Milk Day (CA) Law Day (36) Loyalty Day (36) Malcolm X Day (CA, IL, proposed federal) May Day Military Spouse Day National Day of Prayer (36) National Defense Transportation Day (36) National Maritime Day (36) Peace Officers Memorial Day (36) Truman Day (MO) JuneLesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Pride Month Father's Day (36) Bunker Hill Day (Suffolk County, MA) Carolina Day (SC) Emancipation Day In Texas / Juneteenth (TX) Flag Day (36, proposed federal) Helen Keller Day (PA) Honor America Days (3 weeks) Jefferson Davis Day (AL, FL) Kamehameha Day (HI) Odunde Festival (Philadelphia, PA) Senior Week (week) West Virginia Day (WV) July Independence Day (federal) Lā Hoʻihoʻi Ea (HI, unofficial) Parents' Day (36) Pioneer Day (UT) July–August Summer vacation August American Family Day (AZ) Barack Obama Day (IL) Bennington Battle Day (VT) Hawaii Admission Day / Statehood Day (HI) Lyndon Baines Johnson Day (TX) National Aviation Day (36) Service Reduction Day (MD) Victory over Japan Day (RI, former federal) Women's Equality Day (36) SeptemberProstate Cancer Awareness Month Labor Day (federal) California Admission Day (CA) Carl Garner Federal Lands Cleanup Day (36) Constitution Day (36) Constitution Week (week) Defenders Day (MD) Gold Star Mother's Day (36) National Grandparents Day (36) National Payroll Week (week) Native American Day (CA, TN, proposed federal) Patriot Day (36) September–OctoberHispanic Heritage Month Oktoberfest Rosh Hashanah (religious) Yom Kippur (religious) OctoberBreast Cancer Awareness MonthDisability Employment Awareness MonthFilipino American History MonthLGBT History Month Columbus Day (federal) Halloween Alaska Day (AK) Child Health Day (36) General Pulaski Memorial Day German-American Day Indigenous Peoples' Day (VT) International Day of Non-Violence Leif Erikson Day (36) Missouri Day (MO) National School Lunch Week Native American Day (SD) Nevada Day (NV) Sweetest Day White Cane Safety Day (36) October–November Diwali (religious) NovemberNative American Indian Heritage Month Veterans Day (federal) Thanksgiving (federal) Day after Thanksgiving (24) Election Day (CA, DE, HI, KY, MT, NJ, NY, OH, PR, WV, proposed federal) Family Day (NV) Hanukkah (religious) Lā Kūʻokoʻa (HI, unofficial) Native American Heritage Day (MD, WA) Obama Day (Perry County, AL) December Christmas (religious, federal) Alabama Day (AL) Christmas Eve (KY, NC, SC) Day after Christmas (KY, NC, SC, TX) Festivus Hanukkah (religious, week) Indiana Day (IN) Kwanzaa (religious, week) National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day (36) New Year's Eve Pan American Aviation Day (36) Rosa Parks Day (OH, OR) Wright Brothers Day (36) Varies (year round) Eid al-Adha (religious) Eid al-Fitr (religious) Ramadan (religious, month) Legend: (federal) = federal holidays, (state) = state holidays, (religious) = religious holidays, (week) = weeklong holidays, (month) = monthlong holidays, (36) = Title 36 Observances and CeremoniesBold indicates major holidays commonly celebrated in the United States, which often represent the major celebrations of the month.
See also: Lists of holidays, Hallmark holidays, public holidays in the United States, New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands. v t e Time in religion and mythology Time and fate deities Eternity Eschatology Golden Age Divination Prophecy Calendar Fate Authority control GND: 4136393-0 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.